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The objectives of this research were (a) to characterize the permselective properties of human and porcine skin and (b) to assess the validity of the latter as a model membrane in iontophoresis studies. The electroosmotic transport of [14C]mannitol was followed in vitro across human and porcine skin as a function of pH, in both "anode-to-cathode" and(More)
PURPOSE To determine the electromigration and electroosmotic contributions to the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride, in addition to the more-lipophilic quinine and propranolol hydrochlorides, in the presence and absence of background electrolyte. METHODS In vitro experiments, using excised pig ear skin and both vertical and side-by-side(More)
Over the last 10-15 years, the electrical enhancement of drug delivery across the skin has undergone intense investigation. During this period, considerable amounts of experimental data have been generated, and the successful enhancement of a diverse array of molecules has been achieved. Indeed, the commercial exploitation of the method can be envisaged(More)
PURPOSE To identify and quantify, in vitro and in vivo (in humans), the charge-carrying species during transdermal iontophoresis of lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of the concentration of drug relative to that of sodium chloride in the anodal solution. METHODS In vitro experiments in standard diffusion cells quantified lidocaine delivery and the(More)
We have adapted an Ortho ICP-22 flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood MA) for the simultaneous measurement of three independent fluorochromes and cell volume. This has been accomplished by the addition of a third photomultiplier tube and the development of a new electronic cell volume (ECV) flow cell. Cells are first analyzed as they pass through the(More)
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