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Major phenotypic changes evolve in parallel in nature by molecular mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we use positional cloning methods to identify the major chromosome locus controlling armor plate patterning in wild threespine sticklebacks. Mapping, sequencing, and transgenic studies show that the Ectodysplasin (EDA) signaling pathway plays a key(More)
The genetic and molecular basis of morphological evolution is poorly understood, particularly in vertebrates. Genetic studies of the differences between naturally occurring vertebrate species have been limited by the expense and difficulty of raising large numbers of animals and the absence of molecular linkage maps for all but a handful of laboratory and(More)
Historically, six small lakes in southwestern British Columbia each contained a sympatric species pair of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). These pairs consisted of a 'benthic' and 'limnetic' species that had arisen postglacially and, in four of the lakes, independently. Sympatric sticklebacks are considered biological species because they(More)
ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION (see Glossary) occurs when DIVERGENT SELECTION on traits between populations or subpopulations in contrasting environments leads directly or indirectly to the evolution of REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION. The concept of ecological speciation dates back to the 1940s, from the time the BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT was developed. Dobzhansky 1(More)
The premise that Pleistocene ice ages played an important role in generating present-day species diversity has been challenged by genetic data indicating that most of the youngest terrestrial species on Earth coalesced long before major glacial advances. However, study has been biased towards faunas distributed at low latitudes that were not directly(More)
Populations adapt to novel environments in two distinct ways: selection on pre-existing genetic variation and selection on new mutations. These alternative sources of beneficial alleles can result in different evolutionary dynamics and distinct genetic outcomes. Compared with new mutations, adaptation from standing genetic variation is likely to lead to(More)
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations-more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data(More)
Mechanisms of speciation are not well understood, despite decades of study. Recent work has focused on how natural and sexual selection cause sexual isolation. Here, we investigate the roles of divergent natural and sexual selection in the evolution of sexual isolation between sympatric species of threespine sticklebacks. We test the importance of(More)
Hindlimb loss has evolved repeatedly in many different animals by means of molecular mechanisms that are still unknown. To determine the number and type of genetic changes underlying pelvic reduction in natural populations, we carried out genetic crosses between threespine stickleback fish with complete or missing pelvic structures. Genome-wide linkage(More)