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The adult mammalian brain responds to injury by activating a program of cell proliferation during which many oligodendrocyte precursors, microglia, and some astrocytes proliferate. Another common response to brain injury is the induction of reactive gliosis, a process whereby dormant astrocytes undergo morphological changes and alter their transcriptional(More)
Diffuse infiltrative invasion is a major cause for the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Using human glioma stem cells (GSCs) that recapitulate the invasive propensity of primary GBM, we find that EphA2 critically regulates GBM invasion in vivo. EphA2 was expressed in all seven(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an umbrella designation that includes a heterogeneous group of primary brain tumors. Several classification strategies of GBM have been reported, some by clinical course and others by resemblance to cell types either in the adult or during development. From a practical and therapeutic standpoint, classifying GBMs(More)
Malignant gliomas remain the most devastating childhood and adult tumors of the central nervous system. Although adult and pediatric gliomas are histologically indistinguishable, they differ in location, behavior, and molecular characteristics. This implies that the molecular pathways and pathophysiology of malignant gliomagenesis in these two populations(More)
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors and are aggressively treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Despite this treatment, recurrence is inevitable and survival has improved minimally over the last 50 years. Recent studies have suggested that GBMs exhibit both heterogeneity and instability of(More)
PURPOSE The median survival for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of brain tumor, is less than 1 year. Animal glioma models that are more predictive of therapeutic response in human patients than traditional models and that are genetically and histologically accurate are an unmet need. The nestin tv-a (Ntv-a) genetically(More)
Posttranscriptional events such as RNA stabilization are important for cell differentiation, but little is known about the impact of AU-rich binding proteins (AUBPs) on the fate of neural cells. Expression of destabilizing AUBPs such as AUF1 and neuronal-specific stabilizing proteins such as HuB, HuC and HuD was therefore analyzed in the developing central(More)
eNOS expression is elevated in human glioblastomas and correlated with increased tumor growth and aggressive character. We investigated the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) activity in the perivascular niche (PVN) using a genetic engineered mouse model of PDGF-induced gliomas. eNOS expression is highly elevated in tumor vascular endothelium adjacent to(More)
The acquisition of metastatic ability by tumor cells is considered a late event in the evolution of malignant tumors. We report that untransformed mouse mammary cells that have been engineered to express the inducible oncogenic transgenes MYC and Kras(D12), or polyoma middle T, and introduced into the systemic circulation of a mouse can bypass(More)
Glioblastomas display cellular hierarchies containing tumor-propagating glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). STAT3 is a critical signaling node in GSC maintenance but molecular mechanisms underlying STAT3 activation in GSCs are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the bone marrow X-linked (BMX) nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activates STAT3 signaling to(More)