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Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral(More)
During latency of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the major viral transcript that is detected is the latency-associated transcript (LAT) 2-kb intron. This intron is excised from a larger (approximately 10 kb) primary transcript. Infection of cells with HSV expressing LATs showed that their presence increased accumulation of Hsp70 protein specifically(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a large (150-kb) double-stranded DNA virus that forms latent infections in neuronal cells of the human peripheral nervous system. Previous work determined that the HSV-1 genome is found in an ordered nucleosomal structure during latent infection. However, during lytic infection, it was unclear whether viral DNA was in(More)
Herpesviridae comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses all of whom employ orthologs of the same three glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL. Additionally, herpesviruses often employ accessory proteins to bind receptors and/or bind the heterodimer gH/gL or even to determine cell tropism. Sorting out how these proteins function has been resolved to a large(More)
Herpesviruses minimally require the envelope proteins gB and gH/gL for virus entry and cell-cell fusion; herpes simplex virus (HSV) additionally requires the receptor-binding protein gD. Although gB is a class III fusion protein, gH/gL does not resemble any documented viral fusion protein at a structural level. Based on those data, we proposed that gH/gL(More)
L1 and A28 are vaccinia virus (VACV) envelope proteins which are essential for cellular entry. However, their specific roles during entry are unknown. We tested whether one or both of these proteins might serve as receptor binding proteins (RBP). We found that a soluble, truncated form of L1, but not A28, bound to cell surfaces independently of(More)
Herpes simplex virus entry into cells requires four glycoproteins, gB, gD, gH, and gL. Binding of gD to one of its receptors triggers steps requiring the core fusion proteins, gB and the gH/gL heterodimer. There is evidence that gH/gL initiates hemifusion of cells, but whether this complex interacts physically with gB to cause complete fusion is unknown. We(More)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into cells requires four membrane glycoproteins: gD is the receptor binding protein, and gB and gH/gL constitute the core fusion machinery. Crystal structures of gD and its receptors have provided a basis for understanding the initial triggering steps, but how the core fusion proteins function remains unknown. The gB crystal(More)
UNLABELLED Herpesvirus entry requires the viral glycoprotein triad of gB and gH/gL to carry out fusion between the virion envelope and a cellular membrane in order to release the nucleocapsid into the target cell. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) also requires glycoprotein gD to initiate the fusion cascade by binding a cell receptor such as nectin 1 or(More)
UNLABELLED Glycoprotein B (gB), the fusogen of herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a class III fusion protein with a trimeric ectodomain of known structure for the postfusion state. Seen by negative-staining electron microscopy, it presents as a rod with three lobes (base, middle, and crown). gB has four functional regions (FR), defined by the physical location(More)