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NDP kinases (NDPKs) are multifunctional proteins that regulate a variety of eukaryotic cellular activities, including cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. However, much less is known about the functional significance of NDPKs in plants. We show here that NDPK is associated with H(2)O(2)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in(More)
An Arabidopsis protoplast system was developed for dissecting plant cell death in individual cells. Bax, a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, induces apoptotic-like cell death in Arabidopsis. Bax accumulation in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts expressing murine Bax cDNA from a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter results in cytological(More)
Sumoylation is a post-translational regulatory process in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes, involving conjugation/deconjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to other proteins thus modifying their function. The PIAS [protein inhibitor of activated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)] and SAP (scaffold(More)
Transferrin and ferritin are iron-binding proteins involved in transport and storage of iron as part of iron metabolism. Here, we describe the cDNA cloning and characterization of transferrin (Bi-Tf) and the ferritin heavy chain subunit (Bi-FerHCH), from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus. Bi-Tf cDNA spans 2340 bp and encodes a protein of 706 amino acids and(More)
Although a role for microRNA399 (miR399) in plant responses to phosphate (Pi) starvation has been indicated, the regulatory mechanism underlying miR399 gene expression is not clear. Here, we report that AtMYB2 functions as a direct transcriptional activator for miR399 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Pi starvation signaling. Compared with untransformed(More)
Transferrin in insects is known as an iron transporter, an antibiotic agent, a vitellogenin, and a juvenile hormone-regulated protein. We show here a novel functional role for insect transferrin. Stresses, such as iron overload, bacterial or fungal challenge, cold or heat shock, wounding, and H2O2 or paraquat exposure, cause upregulation of the beetle(More)
2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a specific competitive phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) inhibitor was applied to a suspension cell culture of Cistanche deserticola. The effects of AIP treatment on cell growth, PAL activity, contents and yields of total phenolic compound, salidroside and four phenylethanoid glycosides (PheGs) are investigated. The(More)
Reversible modifications of target proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins are involved in many cellular processes in yeast and animals. Yet little is known about the function of sumoylation in plants. Here, we show that the SIZ1 gene, which encodes an Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase, regulates innate immunity. Mutant siz1 plants exhibit(More)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a classical glycolytic enzyme, is involved in cellular energy production and has important housekeeping functions. In this report, we show that a GAPDH from Arabidopsis, GAPDHa, has a novel function involved in H(2)O(2)-mediated cell death in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplasts. GAPDHa was cloned along with(More)
We cloned the gene, CdPAL1, from Cistanche deserticola callus using RACE PCR with degenerate primers that were designed based on a multiple sequence alignment of known PAL genes from other plant species. The gene shows high homology to other known PAL genes registered in GenBank. The recombinant protein exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km of(More)