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HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual's knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure HIV prevalence and related risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Cairo, Egypt in the context of the first survey wave of an integrated biological and behavioral surveillance system. DESIGN AND METHODS Given the hidden nature of injection drug use, we used the peer-referral methodology of respondent-driven sampling(More)
BACKGROUND Egypt has low HIV prevalence (below 0∙02%) among the general population, mostly attributed to the conservative culture. The 2010 second round biological/behavioral surveillance survey (Bio-BSS) conducted in some governorates revealed concentrated epidemic among male injecting drug users (IDUs). METHODS The current study aimed at exploring the(More)
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