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The NAD-dependent deacetylase Sir2 was initially identified as a mediator of replicative lifespan in budding yeast and was subsequently shown to modulate longevity in worms and flies. Its mammalian homologue, SIRT1, seems to have evolved complex systemic roles in cardiac function, DNA repair and genomic stability. Recent studies suggest a functional(More)
Over the past decade, it has become increasingly obvious that epigenetic mechanisms are an integral part of a multitude of brain functions that range from the development of the nervous system over basic neuronal functions to higher order cognitive processes. At the same time, a substantial body of evidence has surfaced indicating that several(More)
Aberrant cell-cycle activity and DNA damage are emerging as important pathological components in various neurodegenerative conditions. However, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that deregulation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) activity by p25/Cdk5 induces aberrant cell-cycle activity and double-strand DNA breaks leading to(More)
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been widely used in treatment of major depression because of their efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Escitalopram, an SSRI, is known to decrease oxidative stress in chronic stress animal models. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of pre- and post-treatments with 20 mg/kg and(More)
Aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the subsequent accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide has been widely established as a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The sequential cleavage steps required for the generation of Abeta are well outlined; however, there is a relative dearth of knowledge pertaining(More)
Aberrant cell cycle activity and DNA damage have been observed in neurons in association with various neurodegenerative conditions. While there is strong evidence for a causative role for these events in neurotoxicity, it is unclear how they are triggered and why they are toxic. Here, we introduce a brief background of the current view on cell cycle(More)
Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) complexes, the class III PtdIns3 kinase, specifically phosphorylate the D3 position of PtdIns to produce PtdIns3P. Vps34 is involved in the control of multiple key intracellular membrane trafficking pathways including endocytic sorting and autophagy. In mammalian cells, Vps34 interacts with Beclin 1, an ortholog of Atg6(More)
We investigated the effect of long-term oral administration of ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (Umbelliferae) (EAG) or decursinol, a coumarin isolated from A. gigas, on beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Abeta(1-42))-induced memory impairment in mice. Mice were allowed free access to drinking water (control) or water containing different concentrations of(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) harbors subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397 kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and(More)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) have been shown to differentiate into a variety of replacement cell types. Detailed evaluation and comparison with their human embryonic stem cell (hESC) counterparts is critical for assessment of their therapeutic potential. Using established methods, we demonstrate here that hiPSCs are capable of generating(More)