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Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite in the kynurenine pathway, is protective against various insults. However, the molecular mechanism of this protective effect has not been identified. In this study, we examined the protective effects of KYNA against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), the best-characterized toxin inducing pathological changes(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress(More)
Stroke results in the disruption of tissue architecture and is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Transplanting scaffolds containing stem cells into the injured areas of the brain has been proposed as a treatment strategy, and carbon nanotubes show promise in this regard, with positive outcomes when used as scaffolds in neural cells and(More)
It has been suggested that baicalein, a flavonoid obtained from the Scutellaria root, exerts a protective role on neurons against several neuronal insults. However, the protective mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain largely unknown. Our results indicate that baicalein protects SH-SY5Y cells, a dopaminergic neuronal cell line, from(More)
AIMS OF STUDY Although the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Asteraceae) have long been used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined. We investigated the effects of a 70% ethanolic extract of C. indicum (CIE) on the activities of(More)
AIMS OF STUDY Although Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (Liliaceae) has long been used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined. We investigated the effects of 70% ethanolic extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (ACE) on skin(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of beta-amyloid (Abeta)-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have indicated that alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of AD. Here we show that alcohol exposure has a synergistic effect on Abeta-induced neuronal cell death. Abeta-treated cultured neurons(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is causally linked with gastric carcinogenesis. Virulent H. pylori strains deliver bacterial CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Induction of high motility and an elongated phenotype is considered to be CagA-dependent process. Casein kinase 2 plays a critical role in carcinogenesis through(More)
Glehnia littoralis (Umbelliferae) has been used traditionally in Korean, Japanese, and Chinese medicine for the treatment of immune-related diseases; however, its anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism remain to be defined. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and inhibitory mechanism on inflammation by the methylene chloride fraction(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) serves as an extracellular signal that triggers apoptosis in tumor cells. To characterize the molecular events involved in TRAIL-induced apoptotic signaling, we investigated the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in HeLa cell death. Here we show that TRAIL-activated(More)