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Insulin stimulates protein synthesis and cell growth by activation of the protein kinases Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). It was reported that Akt activates mTOR by phosphorylation and inhibition of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2). However, in recent studies the physiological requirement of Akt(More)
Nutrient starvation induces autophagy in eukaryotic cells through inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved protein kinase. TOR, as a central regulator of cell growth, plays a key role at the interface of the pathways that coordinately regulate the balance between cell growth and autophagy in response to nutritional status, growth(More)
Autophagy, the starvation-induced degradation of bulky cytosolic components, is up-regulated in mammalian cells when nutrient supplies are limited. Although mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is known as the key regulator of autophagy induction, the mechanism by which mTOR regulates autophagy has remained elusive. Here, we identify that mTOR(More)
(2013) Global, 30-m resolution continuous fields of tree cover: Landsat-based rescaling of MODIS vegetation continuous fields with lidar-based estimates of error, Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the " Content ") contained in the publications on our platform. Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors(More)
Understanding how the various host cells respond to probiotic bacteria in vitro may provide important insight into elaborate immune responses triggered by beneficial bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed pattern of the mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) in head kidney (HK) leucocytes and gut cells(More)
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum B26 and Carnobacterium divergens B33, which were isolated from the intestine of healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), were selected as being potentially useful as probiotics with effectiveness against Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri. Thus, rainbow trout administered with feed supplemented with B26 or(More)
Human ChlR1 (hChlR1), a member of the DEAD/DEAH subfamily of helicases, was shown to interact with components of the cohesin complex and play a role in sister chromatid cohesion. In order to study the biochemical and biological properties of hChlR1, we purified the protein from 293 cells and demonstrated that hChlR1 possesses DNA-dependent ATPase and(More)
Mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR), which is a master controller of cell growth, senses a mitogenic signal in part through the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), generated by phospholipase D (PLD). To understand further which isozymes of PLD are involved in this process, we compared the effect of PLD isozymes on mTOR activation. We found that(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) interacts with raptor to form the protein complex mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1), which plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth in response to environmental cues. Given that glucose is a primary fuel source and a biosynthetic precursor, how mTORC1 signaling is coordinated with glucose metabolism has been an(More)
Thioredoxins (TRxs) are a family of small, highly conserved proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. TRx1, which contains a conserved redox-active site, Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys, is a proinflammatory cytokine, B cell growth factor, macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MIF), and an immune regulatory cytokine. The TRx1 homologue cDNA(More)