Learn More
Autophagy, the starvation-induced degradation of bulky cytosolic components, is up-regulated in mammalian cells when nutrient supplies are limited. Although mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is known as the key regulator of autophagy induction, the mechanism by which mTOR regulates autophagy has remained elusive. Here, we identify that mTOR(More)
Insulin stimulates protein synthesis and cell growth by activation of the protein kinases Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). It was reported that Akt activates mTOR by phosphorylation and inhibition of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2). However, in recent studies the physiological requirement of Akt(More)
Nutrient starvation induces autophagy in eukaryotic cells through inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved protein kinase. TOR, as a central regulator of cell growth, plays a key role at the interface of the pathways that coordinately regulate the balance between cell growth and autophagy in response to nutritional status, growth(More)
Global, 30-m resolution continuous fields of tree cover: Landsat-based rescaling of MODIS vegetation continuous fields with lidar-based estimates of error Joseph O. Sexton a , Xiao-Peng Song a , Min Feng a , Praveen Noojipady a , Anupam Anand a , Chengquan Huang a , Do-Hyung Kim a , Kathrine M. Collins a , Saurabh Channan a , Charlene DiMiceli b & John R.(More)
Human ChlR1 (hChlR1), a member of the DEAD/DEAH subfamily of helicases, was shown to interact with components of the cohesin complex and play a role in sister chromatid cohesion. In order to study the biochemical and biological properties of hChlR1, we purified the protein from 293 cells and demonstrated that hChlR1 possesses DNA-dependent ATPase and(More)
Amino acids stimulate cell growth and suppress autophagy through activation of mTORC1. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is mediated by Rag guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) heterodimers on the lysosome. The molecular mechanism by which amino acids regulate the Rag GTPase heterodimers remains to be elucidated. Here, we identify SH3 domain-binding(More)
In eukaryotes, the creation of ligatable nicks in DNA from flap structures generated by DNA polymerase delta-catalyzed displacement DNA synthesis during Okazaki fragment processing depends on the combined action of Fen1 and Dna2. These two enzymes contain partially overlapping but distinct endonuclease activities. Dna2 is well-suited to process long flaps,(More)
Autophagy, the primary recycling pathway of cells, plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control under normal growth conditions and in the response to cellular stress. The Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone complex coordinately regulates the activity of select kinases to orchestrate many facets of the stress response. Although both maintain mitochondrial(More)
Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish,(More)
The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the coordinate regulation of cellular responses to nutritional and growth factor conditions. mTOR achieves these roles through interacting with raptor and rictor to form two distinct protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Previous studies have been focused on mTORC1 to(More)