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We proposed an economic, cost-constrained optimal design of a water distribution system (WDS) that maximizes seismic reliability while satisfying pressure constraints. The model quantifies the seismic reliability of a WDS through a series of procedures: stochastic earthquake generation, seismic intensity attenuation, determination of the pipe failure status(More)
Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a(More)
This paper describes a study conducted to develop a method to facilitate more reliable determination of the rehabilitation priority order for water pipes by taking into account the pipes' hydraulic importance. Existing methods use only the pipeline deterioration rate to determine the rehabilitation priority order. Accordingly, the deterioration rate under(More)
Due to possessing unique structure, sandwich panels have special characteristics which the most important is having high strength to weight ratio. Sandwich panels having diverse prismatic cores have been investigated and comparisons have been carried out for finding the best design. For this reason, the importance of optimization techniques particularly(More)
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