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A practical quantum computer, if built, would consist of a set of coupled two-level quantum systems (qubits). Among the variety of qubits implemented, solid-state qubits are of particular interest because of their potential suitability for integrated devices. A variety of qubits based on Josephson junctions have been implemented; these exploit the coherence(More)
We have calculated all the components of the current in a short one-dimensional channel between two superconductors for arbitrary voltages and transparencies D of the channel. We demonstrate that in the ballistic limit (D ≃ 1), the crossover between the quasistationary evolution of the Joseph-son phase difference ϕ at small voltages and transport by(More)
We develop a theory of macroscopic resonant tunneling of flux in a double-well potential in the presence of realistic flux noise with a significant low-frequency component. The rate of incoherent flux tunneling between the wells exhibits resonant peaks, the shape and position of which reflect qualitative features of the noise, and can thus serve as a(More)
The most succinct manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics is the limitation imposed by the Landauer principle on the amount of heat a Maxwell demon (MD) can convert into free energy per single bit of information obtained in a measurement. We propose and realize an electronic MD based on a single-electron box operated as a Szilard engine, where kBT(More)
Recent progress on micro- and nanometer-scale manipulation has opened the possibility to probe systems small enough that thermal fluctuations of energy and coordinate variables can be significant compared with their mean behavior. We present an experimental study of nonequilibrium thermodynamics in a classical two-state system, namely, a metallic(More)
We propose and investigate a novel method for the controlled coupling of two Josephson charge qubits by means of a variable electrostatic transformer. The value of the coupling capacitance is given by the discretized curvature of the lowest energy band of a Josephson junction, which can be positive, negative, or zero. We calculate the charging diagram of(More)