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How different is local cortical circuitry from a random network? To answer this question, we probed synaptic connections with several hundred simultaneous quadruple whole-cell recordings from layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the rat visual cortex. Analysis of this dataset revealed several nonrandom features in synaptic connectivity. We confirmed previous(More)
We pursue the hypothesis that neuronal placement in animals minimizes wiring costs for given functional constraints, as specified by synaptic connectivity. Using a newly compiled version of the Caenorhabditis elegans wiring diagram, we solve for the optimal layout of 279 nonpharyngeal neurons. In the optimal layout, most neurons are located close to their(More)
Wiring a brain presents a formidable problem because neural circuits require an enormous number of fast and durable connections. We propose that evolution was likely to have optimized neural circuits to minimize conduction delays in axons, passive cable attenuation in dendrites, and the length of "wire" used to construct circuits, and to have maximized the(More)
Despite recent interest in reconstructing neuronal networks, complete wiring diagrams on the level of individual synapses remain scarce and the insights into function they can provide remain unclear. Even for Caenorhabditis elegans, whose neuronal network is relatively small and stereotypical from animal to animal, published wiring diagrams are neither(More)
Complete reconstructions of vertebrate neuronal circuits on the synaptic level require new approaches. Here, serial section transmission electron microscopy was automated to densely reconstruct four volumes, totaling 670 μm(3), from the rat hippocampus as proving grounds to determine when axo-dendritic proximities predict synapses. First, in contrast with(More)
Time invariant description of synaptic connectivity in cortical circuits may be precluded by the ongoing growth and retraction of dendritic spines accompanied by the formation and elimination of synapses. On the other hand, the spatial arrangement of axonal and dendritic branches appears stable. This suggests that an invariant description of connectivity(More)
The advent of high-quality 3D reconstructions of neuronal arbors has revived the hope of inferring synaptic connectivity from the geometric shapes of axons and dendrites, or 'neurogeometry'. A quantitative description of connectivity must be built on a sound theoretical framework. Here, we review recent developments in neurogeometry that can provide such a(More)
In the visual cortex of many mammals, orientation preference changes smoothly along the cortical surface, with the exception of singularities such as pinwheels and fractures. The reason for the existence of these singularities has remained elusive, suggesting that they are developmental artifacts. We show that singularities reduce the length of(More)
We aim to improve segmentation through the use of machine learning tools during region agglomeration. We propose an active learning approach for performing hierarchical agglomerative segmentation from superpixels. Our method combines multiple features at all scales of the agglomerative process, works for data with an arbitrary number of dimensions, and(More)
We investigate rules that govern neuronal arborization, speciÿcally the local geometry of the bifurcation of a neurite into its sub-branches. In the present study we set out to determine the relationship between branch diameter and angle. Existing theories are based on minimizing a neuronal volume cost function, or, alternatively, on the equilibrium of(More)