DixieCaroline Blanchard

Learn More
When a cat was presented to groups of 3 male and 2 female laboratory rats in the open area of a visible burrow system, the rats retreated to the burrow system and showed high levels of 18-24 kHz ultrasonic cries during the cat presentation and for 30 min following removal of the cat. Latency to make ultrasonic vocalizations, durations of these(More)
Social interactions serve as an evolutionarily important source of stress, and one that is virtually ubiquitous among mammalian species. Animal models of social stress are varied, ranging from a focus on acute, intermittent, or chronic exposure involving agonistic behavior, to social isolation. The relative stressfulness of these experiences may depend on(More)
The natural defensive behaviors of laboratory mice have been evaluated in both seminatural and highly structured situations; and characterized in terms of eliciting stimuli, response to pharmacological agents, behavior patterns, and outcome or effect on the social and physical environment. The defense patterns of laboratory mice and rats are generally(More)
The Mouse Defense Test Battery was developed from tests of defensive behaviors in rats, reflecting earlier studies of both acute and chronic responses of laboratory and wild rodents to threatening stimuli and situations. It measures flight, freezing, defensive threat and attack, and risk assessment in response to an unconditioned predator stimulus, as well(More)
An anxiety/defense test battery was designed to assess defensive reactions of laboratory rats to situations associated with nonpainful threat (exposure to a cat). The battery measured three defense patterns, movement inhibition, risk assessment behaviors, and inhibition of nondefensive behaviors, in two tasks. Diazepam (4.0 mg/kg) altered four of five risk(More)
The BTBR T+tf/J inbred mouse strain displays a variety of persistent phenotypic alterations similar to those exhibited in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The unique genetic background of the BTBR strain is thought to underlie its lack of reciprocal social interactions, elevated repetitive self-directed grooming, and restricted exploratory behaviors. In(More)
Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat(More)
Exposure of rats to a cat odor block in a previously familiarized situation was followed by three extinction days to the same or a different situation, and with or without an identical but odor-free block, and, testing in the original apparatus with an odor-free block (cue). Initial exposure produced risk assessment (stretch attend), avoidance of the block,(More)
In a straight alley containing a cat odor stimulus rats show high rates of risk assessment, including flat back approach and stretch attend behaviors oriented toward the threat stimulus and contact with the stimulus. In this situation, diazepam (2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced risk assessment measures (flat back approach + stretch attend), while(More)