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Mutations in the human dynamin-related protein Drp1 cause mitochondria to form perinuclear clusters. We show here that these mitochondrial clusters consist of highly interconnected mitochondrial tubules. The increased connectivity between mitochondria indicates that the balance between mitochondrial division and fusion is shifted toward fusion. Such a shift(More)
Mitochondria exist as a dynamic tubular network with projections that move, break, and reseal in response to local environmental changes. We present evidence that a human dynamin-related protein (Drp1) is specifically required to establish this morphology. Drp1 is a GTPase with a domain structure similar to that of other dynamin family members. To identify(More)
Drosophila shibire and its mammalian homologue dynamin regulate an early step in endocytosis. We identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dynamin gene, dyn-1, based upon hybridization to the Drosophila gene. The dyn-1 RNA transcripts are trans-spliced to the spliced leader 1 and undergo alternative splicing to code for either an 830- or 838-amino acid protein.(More)
Dynamin is a 100-kDa GTPase that assembles into multimeric spirals at the necks of budding clathrin-coated vesicles. We describe three different intramolecular binding interactions that may account for the process of dynamin self-assembly. The first binding interaction is the dimerization of a 100-amino acid segment in the C-terminal half of dynamin. We(More)
Dying cells release pro-inflammatory molecules, functioning as cytokines to trigger cell/tissue inflammation that is relevant to disease pathology. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is believed to act as a danger signal for tissue damage once released extracellularly. Potential roles of HSP90 were explored in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) inflammatory(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans dynamin is expressed at high levels in neurons and at lower levels in other cell types, consistent with the important role that dynamin plays in the recycling of synaptic vesicles. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that dynamin is concentrated along the dorsal and ventral nerve cords and in the synapse-rich nerve ring. Green(More)
Synthetic retinoid-related molecules, such as N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide) and 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) induce apoptosis in a variety of malignant cells. The mechanism(s) of action of these compounds does not appear to involve retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs),(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in modulating retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) responses to oxidative stress. METHODS ARPE-19 cells were treated with the oxidant, t-butylhydroperoxide (tBH) to induce apoptosis. Cells pretreated with synthetic PPARγ agonists of the antidiabetic thiazolidinediones(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enhancer element is important in the regulation of HIV gene expression. A number of cellular proteins have been demonstrated to bind to the NF-kappa B motifs in this element. The genes encoding several of these proteins, including members of the rel family and PRDII-BF1, have been cloned. We characterized the binding(More)