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Visual adaptation to temporal contrast (intensity modulation of a spatially uniform, randomly flickering stimulus) was examined in simultaneously recorded ensembles of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in tiger salamander and macaque monkey retina. Slow contrast adaptation similar to that recently discovered in salamander and rabbit retina was observed in(More)
The re-establishment of conscious awareness after discontinuing general anesthesia has often been assumed to be the inverse of loss of consciousness. This is despite the obvious asymmetry in the initiation and termination of natural sleep. In order to characterize the restoration of consciousness after surgery, we recorded frontal electroencephalograph(More)
The brain is a large network of interconnected neurons where each cell functions as a nonlinear processing element. Unraveling the mysteries of information processing in the complex networks of the brain requires versatile neurostimulation and imaging techniques. Optogenetics is a new stimulation method which allows the activity of neurons to be modulated(More)
The practice of neuroanesthesia is unique in that the target organ of both the surgeon and the anesthetist is one and the same. Thus, the surgical goals have a profound impact on the constraints that the anesthesiologist must work within. In order to appropriately anesthetize the patient for neurosurgery, an understanding of the interrelationships of(More)
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