Dirk Schnabel

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Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been linked with rare abnormalities in genes encoding transcription factors necessary for pituitary development. We have isolated LHX3, a gene involved in a new syndrome, using a candidate-gene approach developed on the basis of documented pituitary abnormalities of a recessive lethal mutation in mice(More)
The occurrence of neurological symptoms and developmental delay in patients affected by congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has been attributed to the lack of thyroid hormone in the developing CNS. Accordingly, after the introduction of neonatal screening programs for CH, which allowed early and adequate treatment, an almost normal outcome for most CH patients(More)
Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC; OMIM 208000) is characterized by calcification of the internal elastic lamina of muscular arteries and stenosis due to myointimal proliferation. We analyzed affected individuals from 11 unrelated kindreds and found that IIAC was associated with mutations that inactivated ecto-nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND Noonan syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) and Costello syndrome constitute a group of developmental disorders with an overlapping pattern of congenital anomalies. Each of these conditions can be caused by germline mutations in key components of the highly conserved Ras-MAPK pathway, possibly reflecting a similar pathogenesis(More)
Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause(More)
The analysis of rare genetic disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis led to the identification of several proteins that are essential for the renal regulation of phosphate homeostasis; for example, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis. Here, we report presumable(More)
BACKGROUND Generalized arterial calcification of infancy has been reported to be frequently lethal, and the efficiency of any therapy, including bisphosphonates, is unknown. A phosphate-poor diet markedly increases survival of NPP1 null mice, a model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a multicenter genetic(More)
Hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting results from a heterogeneous group of disorders. Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is an autosomal recessive form that is characterized by reduced renal phosphate reabsorption, hypophosphatemia, and rickets. It can be distinguished from other forms of hypophosphatemia by(More)
The symptoms of severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair define the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency syndrome as described so far in two children with complete loss-of-function mutations of the human POMC gene. In POMC deficiency, obesity reflects the lack of POMC-derived peptides as ligands at the melanocortin (MC) MC4 and MC3(More)
Children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) are prone to severe stunting. A multicenter mixed-longitudinal study was conducted to assess age-related stature, sitting height, arm and leg length in XLH patients on continuous treatment with phosphate and calcitriol. Mean standard deviation scores (SDS) for all body dimensions were markedly reduced(More)