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The symptoms of severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair define the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency syndrome as described so far in two children with complete loss-of-function mutations of the human POMC gene. In POMC deficiency, obesity reflects the lack of POMC-derived peptides as ligands at the melanocortin (MC) MC4 and MC3(More)
The analysis of rare genetic disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis led to the identification of several proteins that are essential for the renal regulation of phosphate homeostasis; for example, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis. Here, we report presumable(More)
BACKGROUND Noonan syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) and Costello syndrome constitute a group of developmental disorders with an overlapping pattern of congenital anomalies. Each of these conditions can be caused by germline mutations in key components of the highly conserved Ras-MAPK pathway, possibly reflecting a similar pathogenesis(More)
Primary osteoporosis is a rare childhood-onset skeletal condition whose pathogenesis has been largely unknown. We have previously shown that primary osteoporosis can be caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene, and the role of LRP5 is further investigated here. LRP5 was analyzed in 18(More)
BACKGROUND Generalized arterial calcification of infancy has been reported to be frequently lethal, and the efficiency of any therapy, including bisphosphonates, is unknown. A phosphate-poor diet markedly increases survival of NPP1 null mice, a model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a multicenter genetic(More)
Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause(More)
OBJECTIVE Positive effects of growth hormone therapy on growth, nutritional status, and lung function have been observed in patients with cystic fibrosis, but the current evidence is based on unblinded studies that involved a small number of patients. This trial was designed as a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to assess the(More)
Children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) are prone to severe stunting. A multicenter mixed-longitudinal study was conducted to assess age-related stature, sitting height, arm and leg length in XLH patients on continuous treatment with phosphate and calcitriol. Mean standard deviation scores (SDS) for all body dimensions were markedly reduced(More)
PURPOSE The effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on exercise tolerance in children with cystic fibrosis was investigated. METHODS 10 prepubertal children (mean +/- SD; age: 12.1 +/- 1.7 yr; height: 137.4 +/- 9.2 cm; body mass: 27.8 +/- 4.2 kg; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1): 68 +/- 22% predicted) were randomly assigned to either control period(More)
Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been linked with rare abnormalities in genes encoding transcription factors necessary for pituitary development. We have isolated LHX3, a gene involved in a new syndrome, using a candidate-gene approach developed on the basis of documented pituitary abnormalities of a recessive lethal mutation in mice(More)