Learn More
The use of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus led to major advances in the field of transplantation, with excellent short-term outcome. However, the chronic nephrotoxicity of these drugs is the Achilles' heel of current immunosuppressive regimens. In this review, the authors summarize the clinical features and histologic appearance of(More)
BACKGROUND Mycophenolic acid (MPA), an effective immunosuppressive drug used in renal transplantation, is extensively glucuronidated by several uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) into an inactive 7-O-glucuronide and, to a lesser extent, into a pharmacologically active acyl-glucuronide. Experiments using human liver microsomes have shown(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is(More)
The impact of CYP3A and MDR1 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms on long-term tacrolimus disposition and drug-related toxicity has not been assessed. A study was performed in 95 genotyped recipients by measuring (12 and 4 h) concentration-time curves on day 7; 3, 6 months; 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after transplantation. In contrast to recipients carrying(More)
In 2007, a consortium of European experts on tacrolimus (TAC) met to discuss the most recent advances in the drug/dose optimization of TAC taking into account specific clinical situations and the analytical methods currently available and drew some recommendations and guidelines to help clinicians with the practical use of the drug. Pharmacokinetic,(More)
BACKGROUND Susceptibility to calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity (CNIT) after solid organ transplantation could be related to an interindividual variability in renal expression and function of the metabolizing cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) isoenzyme and of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). METHODS We compared renal expression(More)
The soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) promotes proteinuria and induces focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)-like lesions in mice. A serum suPAR concentration cutoff of 3000 pg/ml has been proposed as a clinical biomarker for patients with FSGS. Interestingly, several studies in patients with glomerulopathy found an inverse correlation between the(More)
Kidney transplantation is the best possible treatment for many patients with end-stage renal failure, but progressive dysfunction and eventual allograft loss with return to dialysis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Immune injury from acute or chronic rejection and non-immune causes, such as nephrotoxicity from calcineurin inhibitors,(More)
Everolimus 1.5 or 3 mg/day was compared with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 2 g/day in a randomized, multicenter 36-month trial in de novo renal allograft recipients (n = 588) receiving cyclosporine microemulsion (CsA) and corticosteroids. The study was double-blind until all patients had completed 12 months, then open-label. By 36 months, graft loss occurred(More)
Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes are characterized by hypokalemia, normal to low blood pressure and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Recently, investigators have been able to demonstrate mutations of six genes encoding several renal tubular transporters and ion channels that can be held responsible for Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes. Neonatal(More)