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Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an(More)
A simple generic method for optimizing membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli is still lacking. We have studied the physiological response of the widely used "Walker strains" C41(DE3) and C43(DE3), which are derived from BL21(DE3), to membrane protein overexpression. For unknown reasons, overexpression of many membrane proteins in these strains(More)
Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft. The proteins belong to a large family of secondary transporters, which includes bacterial glutamate transporters. The C-terminal half of the glutamate transporters is well conserved and thought to contain the translocation path and the binding(More)
Secondary glutamate transporters in neuronal and glial cells in the mammalian central nervous system remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and prevent the extracellular glutamate concentration to rise above neurotoxic levels. Secondary structure prediction algorithms predict 6 transmembrane helices in the first half of the(More)
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are secondary transport proteins that mediate the uptake of glutamate and other amino acids. EAATs fulfil an important role in neuronal signal transmission by clearing the excitatory neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft after depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron. An intensively studied model system for(More)
The specific and tightly controlled transport of numerous nutrients and metabolites across cellular membranes is crucial to all forms of life. However, many of the transporter proteins involved have yet to be identified, including the vitamin transporters in various human pathogens, whose growth depends strictly on vitamin uptake. Comparative analysis of(More)
Glutamate transporters in the mammalian central nervous system have a unique position among secondary transport proteins as they exhibit glutamate-gated chloride-channel activity in addition to glutamate-transport activity. In this article, the available data on the structure of the glutamate transporters are compared with high-resolution crystal structures(More)
Mitochondria are one of the hallmarks of eukaryotic cells, exporting ATP in exchange for cytosolic ADP using ADP/ATP carriers (AAC) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, several evolutionarily important anaerobic eukaryotes lack mitochondria but contain hydrogenosomes, peculiar organelles of controversial ancestry that also supply ATP(More)
Many virulence factors secreted by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria belong to the autotransporter (AT) family. ATs consist of a passenger domain, which is the actual secreted moiety, and a beta-domain that facilitates the transfer of the passenger domain across the outer membrane. Here, we analysed folding and translocation of the AT passenger, using(More)
Glutamate transporters catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable transport of anionic amino acids across the cell membrane by coupling it to the downhill transport of cations. This coupling mechanism is still poorly understood, in part because the available crystal structures of these transporters are of relatively low resolution. Here we solve crystal(More)