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The recently identified transport proteins organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, and extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) accept dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and 5-hydroxytryptamine as substrates and hence qualify as non-neuronal monoamine transporters. In the present study, selective transport substrates were identified that allow, by(More)
The extraneuronal monoamine transporter plays an important role in the inactivation of monoamine transmitters. A basal extraneuronal tissue expression of this transporter has been reported, but it is also expressed in CNS glia. As little is known about the expression pattern and the function of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter in the brain, we(More)
Agmatine has received considerable attention recently. Available evidence suggests that agmatine functions as a neurotransmitter and inhibits, via induction of antizyme, cellular proliferation. Because of its positive charge, agmatine will not appreciably cross cellular membranes by simple diffusion. Indeed, all physiological models require a channel or(More)
Cationic drugs of different types and structures (antihistaminics, antiarrhythmics, sedatives, opiates, cytostatics and antibiotics, for example) are excreted in mammals by epithelial cells of the renal proximal tubules and by hepatocytes in the liver. In the proximal tubules, two functionally disparate transport systems are involved which are localized in(More)
L-type calcium channels are composed of a pore, alpha1c (Ca(V)1.2), and accessory beta- and alpha2delta-subunits. The beta-subunit core structure was recently resolved at high resolution, providing important information on many functional aspects of channel modulation. In this study we reveal differential novel effects of five beta2-subunits isoforms(More)
BACKGROUND In real-time PCR, it is necessary to consider the efficiency of amplification (EA) of amplicons in order to determine initial target levels properly. EAs can be deduced from standard curves, but these involve extra effort and cost and may yield invalid EAs. Alternatively, EA can be extracted from individual fluorescence curves. Unfortunately,(More)
Organic cation transporters (OCT) are responsible for the uptake and intracellular inactivation of a broad spectrum of endogenous substrates and detoxification of xenobiotics and chemotherapeutics. The transporters became pharmaceutically interesting, because OCTs are determinants of the cytotoxicity of platin derivates and the transport activity has been(More)
Discrimination between the amplification of mRNA and contaminating genomic DNA is a common problem when performing a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Even after treatment of the samples with DNAse, it is possible that negative controls (samples in which no reverse transcriptase was added) will give positive results. This indicates(More)