Dirk Gründemann

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Cationic drugs of different types and structures (antihistaminics, antiarrhythmics, sedatives, opiates, cytostatics and antibiotics, for example) are excreted in mammals by epithelial cells of the renal proximal tubules and by hepatocytes in the liver. In the proximal tubules, two functionally disparate transport systems are involved which are localized in(More)
The recently identified transport proteins organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, and extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) accept dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and 5-hydroxytryptamine as substrates and hence qualify as non-neuronal monoamine transporters. In the present study, selective transport substrates were identified that allow, by(More)
Renal secretion of organic cations involves at least two distinct transporters, located in the basolateral and apical membranes of proximal tubule cells. Whereas the basolateral transporter has recently been cloned, sequence information about the apical type was not yet available. An organic cation transporter, OCT2p, was cloned from LLC-PK1 cells, a(More)
The recently cloned apical renal transport system for organic cations (OCT2) exists in dopamine-rich tissues such as kidney and some brain areas (Gründemann, D., Babin-Ebell, J., Martel, F., Ording, N., Schmidt, A., and Schömig, E. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 10408-10413). The study at hand was performed to answer the question of whether OCT2 accepts(More)
The kidneys and the liver are the principal organs for the inactivation of circulating organic cations. Recently, an organic cation transporter (OCT1) has been cloned from rat kidney. In order to answer the question whether OCT1 is involved also in hepatic uptake of organic cations, the pharmacological characteristics of organic cation transport in(More)
1. Liver and kidney extract adrenaline and noradrenaline from the circulation by a mechanism which does not seem to be one of the classical catecholamine transporters. The hypothesis that OCT1 is involved the organic cation transporter type 1 which exists in rat kidney and liver-was tested. 2. Based on human embryonic kidney cells (293), we constructed a(More)
The extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) corresponds to the classical steroid-sensitive monoamine transport mechanism that was first described as "uptake2" in rat heart with noradrenaline as substrate. The organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 are related to EMT. The three carriers share basic structural and functional characteristics. Hence, EMT,(More)
Variants of the SLC22A4 gene are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. SLC22A4 codes for an integral membrane protein, OCTN1, that has been presumed to carry organic cations like tetraethylammonium across the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the key substrate of this transporter is in fact ergothioneine (ET). Human(More)
The recent cloning of renal transport systems for organic anions and cations (OAT1, OCT1, and OCT2) opened the possibility to search, via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) homology screening, for novel transport proteins. Two integral membrane proteins, UST1 and UST2, were cloned from rat kidney. RT-PCR revealed that UST1 is confined to the kidney whereas(More)