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Vesicular release of neurotransmitter is the universal output signal of neurons in the brain. It is generally believed that fast transmitter release is restricted to nerve terminals that contact postsynaptic cells in the gray matter. Here we show in the rat brain that the neurotransmitter glutamate is also released at discrete sites along axons in white(More)
Ca2+ influx into presynaptic terminals via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels triggers fast neurotransmitter release as well as different forms of synaptic plasticity. Using electrophysiological and genetic techniques we demonstrate that presynaptic Ca2+ entry through Cav2.3 subunits contributes to the induction of mossy fiber LTP and posttetanic potentiation(More)
NG2-expressing glia (NG2 cells, polydendrocytes) appear in the embryonic brain, expand perinatally, and persist widely throughout the gray and white matter of the mature central nervous system. We have previously reported that NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes in both gray and white matter and a subset of protoplasmic astrocytes in the gray matter of the(More)
Ca 2ϩ-binding proteins are ubiquitously expressed throughout the CNS and serve as valuable immunohistochemical markers for certain types of neurons. However, the functional role of most Ca 2ϩ-binding proteins has to date remained obscure because their concentration in central neurons is not known. In this study, we investigate the intracellular(More)
The development of resistance to pharmacological treatment is common to many human diseases. In chronic epilepsy, many patients develop resistance to anticonvulsant drug treatment during the course of their disease, with the underlying mechanisms remaining unclear. We have studied cellular mechanisms underlying drug resistance in resected hippocampal tissue(More)
In postnatal rodent brain, certain NG2-expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) are contacted by synaptic terminals from local neurons. However, it has remained elusive whether and when NG2(+) cells are integrated into neuronal circuits. Here we use patch-clamp recordings from mitotic cells in murine brain slices to show that, unlike any other(More)
Hippocampal mossy fiber synapses show unique molecular features and dynamic range of plasticity. A recent paper proposed that the defining features of mossy fiber synaptic plasticity are caused by a local buildup of extracellular adenosine (Moore et al., 2003). In this study, we reassessed the role of ambient adenosine in regulating mossy fiber synaptic(More)
NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are ubiquitous and generate oligodendrocytes throughout the young and adult brain. Previous work has shown that virtually every NG2 cell receives synaptic input from many axons, but the meaning of this signaling is not understood. In particular, it is unclear whether neurons specifically synapse onto(More)
Ca2+-binding proteins are ubiquitously expressed throughout the CNS and serve as valuable immunohistochemical markers for certain types of neurons. However, the functional role of most Ca2+-binding proteins has to date remained obscure because their concentration in central neurons is not known. In this study, we investigate the intracellular concentration(More)
The ionotropic and cytolytic P2X7 receptor is typically found on immune cells, where it is involved in the release of cytokines. Recently, P2X7 receptors were reported to be localized to presynaptic nerve terminals and to modulate transmitter release. In the present study, we reassessed this unexpected role of P2X7 receptors at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3(More)