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UNLABELLED Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood(More)
Animal studies and results from 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy suggest that a disturbed brain ammonia metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). We studied brain ammonia kinetics in 8 patients with cirrhosis with an acute episode of(More)
Positive reinforcing properties of nicotine and the psychostimulants have been attributed to elevated dopamine release in the basal ganglia. It is well known that the specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride to dopamine D(2,3) receptors in living striatum is reduced by cocaine and amphetamines, revealing increased competition between endogenous dopamine and(More)
Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that has reached clinical trials for Parkinson's disease. GDNF binds to its coreceptor GFRα1 and signals through the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase RET, or RET independently through NCAM or syndecan-3. Whereas the GDNF signaling cascades are well described, cellular(More)
UNLABELLED The histamine H(3) receptor is a G-protein-coupled presynaptic auto- and heteroreceptor whose activation leads to a decrease in the release of several neurotransmitters including histamine, acetycholine, noradrenaline, and dopamine. H(3) receptor antagonists such as(More)
Most radioligands are substantially metabolised in peripheral organs during the course of positron emission tomography (PET) recordings. Accurate determination of plasma concentrations of unmetabolised radioligands is often important for quantification of data from PET studies. The fractions of untransformed radioligand and radioactive metabolites in plasma(More)
A multicenter study is under way to investigate the efficacy of allografting of embryonic mesencephalic neurons in a pig model of Parkinson's disease. We have first established that a stable parkinsonian syndrome can be established by l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication of adult male Göttingen minipigs. We are now using positron(More)
Large animal neuroscience enables the use of conventional clinical brain imagers and the direct use and testing of surgical procedures and equipment from the human clinic. The greater complexity of the large animal brain additionally enables a more direct translation to human brain function in health and disease. Economical, ethical, scientific and(More)
As part of the DaNeX study, the uptake and binding of several positron emitting tracers was recorded in brain of healthy Göttingen minipigs, in minipigs with a syndrome of parkinsonism due to MPTP intoxication, and in parkinsonian minipigs which had received intrastriatal grafts of mesencephalic neurons from fetal pigs. The specific binding of [11C]NS 2214(More)
The ligands N-methylspiperone and haloperidol both bind to D(2)-like dopamine receptors. The competitive nature of the binding over a wide range of haloperidol concentrations and the effect on dopamine release have never been tested in vivo. We determined the competitive interaction between 3-N-[(11)C]methylspiperone ([(11)C]NMSP) and haloperidol binding to(More)