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To understand the system of secreted proteins and receptors involved in cell-cell signaling, we produced a comprehensive set of recombinant secreted proteins and the extracellular domains of transmembrane proteins, which constitute most of the protein components of the extracellular space. Each protein was tested in a suite of assays that measured(More)
The architecture and weights of an artificial neural network model that predicts putative transmembrane sequences have been developed and optimized by the algorithm of structure evolution. The resulting filter is able to classify membrane/nonmembrane transition regions in sequences of integral human membrane proteins with high accuracy. Similar results have(More)
Partitioning of digital circuits has become a key problem area during the last five years. Benefits from new technologies like Multi-Chip-Modules or logic emulation strongly depend on partitioning results. Most published approaches are based on abstract graph models constructed from flat netlists, which consider only connectivity information. The approach(More)
A new approach for partitioning VLSI digital integrated circuits is presented. In contrast to known approaches, which use only topological information, the presented method also exploits specific information about design modules and higher level design structure. Based on this knowledge, the design driven procedure creates a cluster structure that(More)
BACKGROUND T cells recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and their cryptic antigenic peptides on antigen-presenting cells and are generally triggered to proliferate, and when sufficient, co-stimulation is available. In soluble form, monomeric MHC molecules can induce apoptosis, anergy, or decreases of the T-cell receptor (TCR). (More)
Due to high mixing times and base addition from top of the vessel, pH inhomogeneities are most likely to occur during large-scale mammalian processes. The goal of this study was to set-up a scale-down model of a 10-12 m3 stirred tank bioreactor and to investigate the effect of pH perturbations on CHO cell physiology and process performance. Short-term(More)
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