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Pannexin 1 (Px1, Panx1) and pannexin 2 (Px2, Panx2) form large-pore nonselective channels in the plasma membrane of cells and were suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. To directly test a potential contribution of pannexins in ischemia-related mechanisms, we performed experiments in Px1(-/-), Px2(-/-), and Px1(-/-)Px2(-/-)(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a key regulator of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival and inflammation. There is ample evidence that NF-kappaB is activated in cerebral ischemia, mainly in neurons. Despite its well known role as an antiapoptotic factor, in cerebral ischemia NF-kappaB contributes to neuronal cell death, at least if the ischemia(More)
Activation of the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB(2)) reduces ischemic injury in several organs. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective action are unclear. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, we show that the CB(2) agonist JWH-133 (1 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)) decreases the infarct size measured 3 d after onset of ischemia. The neuroprotective effect of(More)
Neuronal apoptosis contributes to ischemic brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders. Key regulators of neuronal apoptosis are the transcription factor NF-κB and the MAP kinases p38/MAPK and JNK, which share a common upstream activator, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Here we investigate the(More)
In stroke, gene transcription plays a central role in processes such as neuroinflammation and neuroregeneration. To predict new transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in cerebral ischemia, we applied a computational approach combining two kinds of information: the results of a microarray analysis in a mouse model of stroke and in silico detection of(More)
Systemic inflammation affects the brain, resulting in fever, anorexia, lethargy, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. How peripheral inflammatory signals reach the brain is still a matter of debate. One possibility is that, in response to inflammatory stimuli, brain endothelial cells in proximity to the thermoregulatory centers produce(More)
Inactivating mutations of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a key component of NF-κB signaling, cause the genetic disease incontinentia pigmenti (IP). This leads to severe neurological symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying brain involvement were unclear. Here, we show that selectively deleting Nemo or the upstream kinase Tak1 in brain endothelial(More)
GDF-15 is a novel distant member of the TGF-β superfamily and is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. We have previously reported that GDF-15 is a potent neurotrophic factor for lesioned dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and that GDF-15-deficient mice show progressive postnatal losses of motor and sensory neurons. We(More)
The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is an endogenous factor protecting against stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, but its mode of action is unclear. Here we show in a stroke model that the hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2, GPR109A) is required for the neuroprotective effect of BHB and a ketogenic diet, as this effect is lost in Hca2(-/-)(More)
TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a MAP3 kinase, is involved in at least five signaling cascades that modulate ischemic brain damage. Inhibition of TAK1 may therefore be an efficient way to interfere with multiple mechanisms in ischemic stroke. Indeed, a recent publication in Experimental Neurology confirmed that TAK1 inhibition by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol is(More)