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Pannexin 1 (Px1, Panx1) and pannexin 2 (Px2, Panx2) form large-pore nonselective channels in the plasma membrane of cells and were suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. To directly test a potential contribution of pannexins in ischemia-related mechanisms, we performed experiments in Px1(-/-), Px2(-/-), and Px1(-/-)Px2(-/-)(More)
Systemic inflammation affects the brain, resulting in fever, anorexia, lethargy, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. How peripheral inflammatory signals reach the brain is still a matter of debate. One possibility is that, in response to inflammatory stimuli, brain endothelial cells in proximity to the thermoregulatory centers produce(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a key regulator of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival and inflammation. There is ample evidence that NF-kappaB is activated in cerebral ischemia, mainly in neurons. Despite its well known role as an antiapoptotic factor, in cerebral ischemia NF-kappaB contributes to neuronal cell death, at least if the ischemia(More)
In stroke, gene transcription plays a central role in processes such as neuroinflammation and neuroregeneration. To predict new transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in cerebral ischemia, we applied a computational approach combining two kinds of information: the results of a microarray analysis in a mouse model of stroke and in silico detection of(More)
The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is an endogenous factor protecting against stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, but its mode of action is unclear. Here we show in a stroke model that the hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2, GPR109A) is required for the neuroprotective effect of BHB and a ketogenic diet, as this effect is lost in Hca2(-/-)(More)
GDF-15 is a novel distant member of the TGF-β superfamily and is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. We have previously reported that GDF-15 is a potent neurotrophic factor for lesioned dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and that GDF-15-deficient mice show progressive postnatal losses of motor and sensory neurons. We(More)
The oral antidiabetic thiazolidinediones exert protective effects in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurological diseases. While the antidiabetic effect is due to activation of PPARγ, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection are more controversial. It may involve activation of PPARγ blocking inflammation and apoptosis. However, new evidence(More)
TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a MAP3 kinase, is involved in at least five signaling cascades that modulate ischemic brain damage. Inhibition of TAK1 may therefore be an efficient way to interfere with multiple mechanisms in ischemic stroke. Indeed, a recent publication in Experimental Neurology confirmed that TAK1 inhibition by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol is(More)
Fever is a hallmark of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The febrile response is triggered by prostaglandin E2 synthesis mediated by induced expression of the enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). The cellular source for pyrogenic PGE2 remains a subject of debate; several hypotheses have been forwarded,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke is triggered by several risk factors, including influenza and other respiratory tract infections. However, it is unknown how and in which way influenza infection affects stroke outcome. METHODS We infected mice intranasally with human influenza A (H1N1) virus and occluded the middle cerebral artery to induce ischemic strokes.(More)