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The innate immune system recognizes microorganisms through a series of pattern recognition receptors that are highly conserved in evolution. Insects have a family of 12 peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) that recognize peptidoglycan, a ubiquitous component of bacterial cell walls. We report cloning of three novel human PGRPs (PGRP-L, PGRP-Ialpha,(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules coded by up to 13 genes in insects and 4 genes in mammals. In insects PGRPs activate antimicrobial pathways in the hemolymph and cells, or are peptidoglycan (PGN)-lytic amidases. In mammals one PGRP is an antibacterial neutrophil protein. We report that human PGRP-L is a(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are innate immunity proteins that are conserved from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial peptidoglycan, and function in antibacterial immunity and inflammation. Mammals have four PGRPs - PGLYRP1, PGLYRP2, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4. They are secreted proteins expressed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes(More)
Skin protects the body from the environment and is an important component of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Psoriasis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease of unknown cause determined by multigenic predisposition, environmental factors, and aberrant immune response. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are expressed in the skin, and we(More)
MD-2 is associated with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the cell surface and enables TLR4 to respond to LPS. We tested whether MD-2 enhances or enables the responses of both TLR2 and TLR4 to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their components. TLR2 without MD-2 did not efficiently respond to highly purified LPS and LPS partial structures. MD-2(More)
This study was done to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction by gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria (micrococci) and peptidoglycan (PGN) induced transcription of IL-8 in HEK293 cells expressing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and CD14 but not in those expressing TLR1 or TLR4. A mutation within the NF-kappaB site in the IL-8(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are innate immunity molecules present in insects, mollusks, echinoderms, and vertebrates, but not in nematodes or plants. PGRPs have at least one carboxy-terminal PGRP domain (approximately 165 amino acids long), which is homologous to bacteriophage and bacterial type 2 amidases. Insects have up to 19 PGRPs,(More)
Since the ability of peptidoglycan (PGN) to activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was recently questioned, we reevaluated activation of TLR2 by PGN. Polymeric soluble or insoluble Staphylococcus aureus PGN, repurified by sodium dodecyl sulfate or phenol extraction, activated TLR2 at 0.1 to 1 or 10 mug/ml, respectively, and induced tumor necrosis factor alpha(More)
The hypothesis that CD14 (an endotoxin receptor present on macrophages and neutrophils) acts as a cell-activating receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan was tested using mouse 70Z/3 cells transfected with human CD14. 70Z/3 cells transfected with an empty vector were unresponsive to insoluble and soluble peptidoglycan, as well as to low concentrations of(More)
Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved bactericidal innate immunity proteins, but the mechanism through which they kill bacteria is unclear. We previously proposed that PGRPs are bactericidal due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mechanism of killing that was also postulated, and later(More)