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Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of innate immunity throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In the mammalian small intestine, Paneth cell alpha-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that contribute to host defense against enteric pathogens. To determine if alpha-defensins also govern intestinal microbial ecology, we analyzed the intestinal(More)
The population dynamics that enable a small number of regulatory T (T(R)) cells to control the immune responses to foreign Ags by the much larger conventional T cell subset were investigated. During the primary immune response, the expansion and contraction of conventional and T(R) cells occurred in synchrony. Importantly, the relative accumulation of T(R)(More)
The loss of Gimap5 (GTPase of the immune-associated protein 5) gene function is the underlying cause of lymphopenia and autoimmune diabetes in the BioBreeding (BB) rat. The in vivo function of murine gimap5 is largely unknown. We show that selective gene ablation of the mouse gimap5 gene impairs the final intrathymic maturation of CD8 and CD4 T cells and(More)
During thymic T cell development, CD4 + CD8 + double-positive (DP) thymocytes that express functional TCR are subjected to positive or negative selection and mature into CD4 or CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes (Starr et al., 2003). Thymic selection also leads to the development of FoxP3 + T regulatory (T reg) cells, which play a critical role in(More)
"Natural" regulatory T cells (nTregs) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 and produce IL-10 are required for systemic immunological tolerance. "Induced" regulatory T cells (iTregs) are nonredundant and essential for tolerance at mucosal surfaces, yet their mechanisms of suppression and stability are unknown. We investigated the role of(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), in particular CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance of tolerance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In the current study, we have identified a population of CD8(+) Foxp3(+) T cells that are induced early during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), constitute a significant(More)
The relationship between the TCR repertoires of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) and conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconv) capable of responding to the same antigenic epitope is unknown. In this study, we used TCRβ-chain transgenic mice to generate polyclonal nTreg and Tconv populations specific for a foreign Ag. CD4(+) T cells from immunized 3.L2β(+/-)(More)
The T cell receptor must translate modest, quantitative differences in ligand binding kinetics into the qualitatively distinct signals used to determine cell fate. Here, we use mice that express an endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) antagonist and an adoptive transfer system to examine the influence of TCR signal quality on the development of effector(More)
We report an inducible system of self Ag expression that examines the relationship between serum protein levels and central T cell tolerance. This transgenic approach is based on tetracycline-regulated expression of a secreted form of hen egg lysozyme, tagged with a murine hemoglobin (Hb) epitope. In the absence of the tetracycline-regulated transactivator,(More)
Inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs), regulated by heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), protect against renal cell injury in vitro. To determine whether HSPs ameliorate ischemic renal injury in vivo, HSF-1 functional knockout mice (HSF-KO) were compared with wild-type mice following bilateral ischemic renal injury. Following injury, the kidneys of wild-type mice(More)