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Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of innate immunity throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In the mammalian small intestine, Paneth cell alpha-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that contribute to host defense against enteric pathogens. To determine if alpha-defensins also govern intestinal microbial ecology, we analyzed the intestinal(More)
During thymic T cell development, CD4 + CD8 + double-positive (DP) thymocytes that express functional TCR are subjected to positive or negative selection and mature into CD4 or CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes (Starr et al., 2003). Thymic selection also leads to the development of FoxP3 + T regulatory (T reg) cells, which play a critical role in(More)
Inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs), regulated by heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), protect against renal cell injury in vitro. To determine whether HSPs ameliorate ischemic renal injury in vivo, HSF-1 functional knockout mice (HSF-KO) were compared with wild-type mice following bilateral ischemic renal injury. Following injury, the kidneys of wild-type mice(More)
Purpose Regulatory T (Treg) cells are an essential subset of CD4+ T cells that induce and maintain immunological tolerance. Preclinical animal models have demonstrated that adop-tive transfer of Treg cells can prevent or cure diabetes, multiple sclerosis (EAE), inflammatory bowel disease, lupus, arthritis, and graft versus host disease. Defects in Treg cell(More)
The T cell receptor must translate modest, quantitative differences in ligand binding kinetics into the qualitatively distinct signals used to determine cell fate. Here, we use mice that express an endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) antagonist and an adoptive transfer system to examine the influence of TCR signal quality on the development of effector(More)
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