Synapsin II is a synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoprotein that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Researchers have demonstrated reductions in synapsin II mRNA and protein in post-mortem prefrontal cortex and hippocampus samples from patients with schizophrenia. Synapsin II protein expression has been shown to be regulated by… (More)
Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins crucial to regulating the processes required for normal neurotransmitter release. Synapsin II, in particular, has been implied as a candidate gene for schizophrenia. This study investigated synapsin II mRNA expression, using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, in coded dorsolateral prefrontal cortical samples provided… (More)
Synapsins are a family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins involved in synaptic vesicle docking, synaptogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Previous studies have reported an increase in synapsin II protein by dopaminergic agents in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. This study investigated the mechanistic pathway involved in… (More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a potent analogue of the endogenous brain peptide l-prolyl-l-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG), (3(R)-[(2(S)-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)amino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (PAOPA), can prevent the induction of social withdrawal caused by sub-chronic treatment with the non-competitive NMDA (N-methyl-l-aspartate) receptor… (More)
Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by a breakdown in cognition and emotion. Over the years, drug treatment for this disorder has mainly been compromised of orthosteric ligands that antagonize the active site of the dopamine D2 receptor. However, these drugs are limited in their use and often lead to the development of adverse movement and… (More)
The hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia include profound disturbances in thought, perception, cognition etc., which negatively impacts an individual's quality of life. Current antipsychotic drugs are not effective in treating all symptoms of this disorder, and often cause severe movement and metabolic side effects. Consequently, there remains a strong… (More)
The activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is intricately regulated by a range of intracellular proteins, including G protein-coupled kinases (GRKs) and arrestins. Understanding the effects of ligands on these signaling pathways could provide insights into disease pathophysiologies and treatment. The dopamine D2 receptor is a GPCR strongly… (More)
Neuronal and glial changes following experimental cerebral ischaemia showed neuronal shrinkage and astrocytic proliferation after temporary bilateral clamping of carotid arteries, and extensive neuronal damage with areas of haemorrhage following bilateral carotid ligations in rats.