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Adaptation to any undesirable change in the environment dictates the survivability of many microorganisms, with such changes generating a quick and suitable response, which guides the physiology of bacteria. During nutritional deprivation, bacteria show a stringent response, as characterized by the accumulation of (p)ppGpp, resulting in the repression of(More)
Electron transport and respiratory pathways are active in both latent and rapidly growing mycobacteria and remain conserved in all mycobacterial species. In mycobacteria, menaquinone is the sole electron carrier responsible for electron transport. Menaquinone biosynthesis pathway is found to be essential for the growth of mycobacteria. Structural analogs of(More)
Bacteria have evolved to survive the ever-changing environment using intriguing mechanisms of quorum sensing (QS). Very often, QS facilitates formation of biofilm to help bacteria to persist longer and the formation of such biofilms is regulated by c-di-GMP. It is a well-known second messenger also found in mycobacteria. Several methods have been developed(More)
Omega (omega) is the smallest subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). Although identified early in RNAP research, its function remained ambiguous and shrouded by controversy for a considerable period. It has subsequently been shown that the protein has a structural role in maintenance of the conformation of the largest subunit, beta', and recruitment of(More)
Latency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a barrier in its complete eradication. Overexpression of certain genes is one of the factors that help these bacilli survive inside the host during latency. Among these genes, rel, which leads to the expression of Rel protein, plays an important role by synthesizing the signaling molecule ppGpp using GDP and ATP(More)
At the heart of understanding cellular processes lies our ability to explore the specific nature of communication between sequential information carrying biopolymers. However, the data extracted from conventional solution phase studies may not reflect the dynamics of communication between recognized partners as they occur in the crowded cellular milieu. We(More)
Microbial adaptation to environmental stress plays an important role in survival. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying the survival of microbes under stress, as they may eventually aid in the successful control of the growth and persistence of these organisms. During nutrient starvation, Escherichia coli elicits a stringent response to(More)
The omega subunit, the smallest subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase, is known to be involved in maintaining the conformation of the beta' subunit and aiding its recruitment to the rest of the core enzyme assembly in Escherichia coli. It has recently been shown in Mycobacterium smegmatis, by creating a deletion mutation of the rpoZ gene encoding omega, that(More)
Non-invasive vaccine delivery is a top priority for public health agencies because conventional immunization practices are unsafe and associated with numerous limitations. Recently, the skin has emerged as a potential alternative route for non-invasive delivery of vaccine. Topical immunization (TI), introduction of antigen through topical application onto(More)
Almost one-third of the world population today harbors the tubercle bacillus asymptomatically. It is postulated that the morphology and staining pattern of the long-term persistors are different from those of actively growing culture. Interestingly, it has been found that the morphology and staining pattern of the starved in vitro population of mycobacteria(More)