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Although the ascidian tadpole larva harbors a prospectively valuable prototype of the chordate nervous system, with extensively characterized neural plate cell lineages, the simple cellular composition of the resultant central nervous system (CNS) is not documented in detail. The average total number of cells in the larval CNS of Ciona intestinalis is 335(More)
At the equator of the fly's eye, between dorsal and ventral eye halves, a systematic, natural addition of photoreceptor terminal input occurs at each of the fixed populations of uniquely identifiable postsynaptic interneurons in each cartridge of the first optic neuropile, or lamina. The equatorial cartridges are identical in composition except in having(More)
We describe the lineage and morphogenesis of neural plate cells in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, from reconstructed cell maps of embryos at 12-min intervals during and after neurulation, between 31 and 61% of embryonic development. Neurulation commences in a posterior to anterior wave following in the wake of the ninth cleavage, when all cells, except(More)
The early lineages of the larval central nervous system (CNS) of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, have been traced using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of embryos fixed at 12-min intervals. The CNS precursors lie superficially, exposed for a long portion (9.3 hr of 42%) of embryonic development, in the neural plate. In the 64-cell stage embryo the(More)
The photoreceptors terminals of newly enclosed female flies, Musca domestica, have been sampled in the first optic neuropile (or lamina) in one of two ways: first, in large number (n = 760) from single sections and second, from serial electron micrographs of the six terminals within each of three cartridges. Both sampling methods concur in assessing the(More)
Samples of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae (F.) and the rose-grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) were collected in late March from wheat fields and adjacent road-side grasses at a number of locations in southern England. Unparasitized aphids were DNA fingerprinted using the multilocus (GATA)4 probe. Over all locations, the fingerprints of individual(More)
Study of plants with unusual phosphorus (P) physiology may assist development of more P-efficient crops. Ptilotus polystachyus grows well at high P supply, when shoot P concentrations ([P]) may exceed 40 mg P g(-1) dry matter (DM). We explored the P physiology of P. polystachyus seedlings grown in nutrient solution with 0-5 mM P. In addition, young leaves(More)
An increase in a form of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, termed fine endophyte or fine root endophyte (Glomus tenue (Greenall) I.R. Hall), is often observed under extreme environmental conditions. We investigated the influence of host plant species, waterlogging and landscape zone (soil type) on colonisation by fine root endophyte. Colonisation by AM(More)