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Studies on the purinergic system normally deal with adenine-based purines, namely, adenine nucleotides and adenosine. However, a guanine-based purinergic system may also have important neuromodulatory roles. Guanine-based purines exert trophic effects on neural cells, protect brain slices in a model of hypoxia and stimulate glutamate uptake. In vivo, both(More)
1. The effect of guanosine on L-[2,3-3H]glutamate uptake was investigated in brain cortical slices under normal or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. 2. In slices exposed to physiological conditions, guanosine (1-100 microM) stimulated glutamate uptake (up to 100%) in a concentration-dependent manner when a high (100 microM) but not a low (1(More)
Intraperitoneal guanosine has been shown to prevent quinolinic acid-induced seizures in mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of orally administered guanosine on seizures induced by the glutamate agonists quinolinic acid and kainate, and the endogenous glutamate releaser alpha-dendrotoxin. Guanosine (7.5 mg/kg, per os), administered 75 min in(More)
The beneficial effects of caffeine on cognition are controversial in humans, whereas its benefit in rodents had been well characterized. However, most studies were performed with acute administration of caffeine and the tasks used to evaluate cognition had aversive components. Here, we evaluated adulthood administration of caffeine up to old age on(More)
Guanine-based purines have been traditionally studied as modulators of intracellular processes, mainly G-protein activity. However, they also exert several extracellular effects not related to G proteins, including modulation of glutamatergic activity, trophic effects on neural cells, and behavioral effects. In this article, the putative roles of(More)
Guanine-based purines have been shown to modulate the effects of glutamate, which is essential for brain function and mediates excitotoxicity. In the search for a mechanism involving the interaction between purine nucleoside guanosine and glutamate, we found that guanosine dose-dependently, significantly (63%) and potently (EC50 =2.47 microM) enhanced(More)
S100B protein, a calcium binding protein produced and released by glial cells, has been used as a sensitive marker of brain damage. Previous studies have found alterations in peripheral S100B levels in schizophrenic patients on medication. We compared serum S100B levels of 20 medication-free DSM-IV schizophrenic patients and 20 age-gender matched healthy(More)
1. Guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) was evaluated as a neuroprotective agent against the damage observed in rat hippocampal slices submitted to an in vitro model of ischemia with or without the presence of the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist, Kainic acid (KA). 2. Cellular injury was evaluated by MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) release assay,(More)
Excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and their receptors play a central role in the mechanisms underlying pain transmission. NMDA-receptor antagonists such as MK-801 produce antinociceptive effects against experimental models of chronic pain, but results in acute pain models are conflicting, perhaps due to increased glutamate availability induced by the(More)
Acute and chronic administration of the nucleoside guanosine have been shown to prevent quinolinic acid (QA) and alpha-dendrotoxin-induced seizures, as well as to impair memory and anxiety in rats and mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. administration of guanine-based purines (GTP, GDP, GMP, and guanosine) against seizures induced by(More)