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Studies on the purinergic system normally deal with adenine-based purines, namely, adenine nucleotides and adenosine. However, a guanine-based purinergic system may also have important neuromodulatory roles. Guanine-based purines exert trophic effects on neural cells, protect brain slices in a model of hypoxia and stimulate glutamate uptake. In vivo, both(More)
1. The effect of guanosine on L-[2,3-3H]glutamate uptake was investigated in brain cortical slices under normal or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. 2. In slices exposed to physiological conditions, guanosine (1-100 microM) stimulated glutamate uptake (up to 100%) in a concentration-dependent manner when a high (100 microM) but not a low (1(More)
Guanine-based purines have been traditionally studied as modulators of intracellular processes, mainly G-protein activity. However, they also exert several extracellular effects not related to G proteins, including modulation of glutamatergic activity, trophic effects on neural cells, and behavioral effects. In this article, the putative roles of(More)
1. Guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) was evaluated as a neuroprotective agent against the damage observed in rat hippocampal slices submitted to an in vitro model of ischemia with or without the presence of the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist, Kainic acid (KA). 2. Cellular injury was evaluated by MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) release assay,(More)
Excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and their receptors play a central role in the mechanisms underlying pain transmission. NMDA-receptor antagonists such as MK-801 produce antinociceptive effects against experimental models of chronic pain, but results in acute pain models are conflicting, perhaps due to increased glutamate availability induced by the(More)
Acute and chronic administration of the nucleoside guanosine have been shown to prevent quinolinic acid (QA) and alpha-dendrotoxin-induced seizures, as well as to impair memory and anxiety in rats and mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. administration of guanine-based purines (GTP, GDP, GMP, and guanosine) against seizures induced by(More)
A wide range of data in the literature suggests that environmental enrichment has beneficial effects on various cognitive parameters in rodents. However, the magnitude of these effects and their persistence after the cessation of enrichment vary markedly across studies, with the use of different enrichment protocols probably playing a significant role in(More)
Acute administration of intraperitoneal and oral guanosine has been shown to prevent quinolinic acid and alpha-dendrotoxin-induced seizures in rats and mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 weeks ad libitum consumption of guanosine (0.5 mg/ml) added to mice water supply on seizures and lethality induced by the alpha-dendrotoxin, hole-board(More)
Beneficial effects of caffeine on memory processes have been observed in animal models relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and aging, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with memory formation and BDNF's actions are modulated by adenosine receptors, the molecular targets for the(More)
Quinolinic acid (QA) has been used as a model for experimental overstimulation of the glutamatergic system. Glutamate uptake is the main mechanism involved in the maintenance of extracellular glutamate below toxic levels. Guanosine systemically administered prevents quinolinic acid-induced seizures in adult mice and increases basal glutamate uptake by(More)