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Angiotensin II (Ang II) interaction with the neuronal AT1 receptor results in a chronic stimulation of neuromodulation that involves the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In view of this unique property and the presence of putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) consensus sequence in the AT1 receptor, this(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the neurons, but the signal transduction mechanism of this neuromodulation is not understood. Treatment of neuronal cultures of hypothalamus-brainstem with Ang II resulted in a time- and dose-dependent activation of Ras, Raf-1, and mitogen-activated protein(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase(More)
The objective of this review is to examine the role of neuronal angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in vitro. Two types of G protein-coupled Ang II receptors have been identified in cardiovascularly relevant areas of the brain: the AT1 and the AT2. We have utilized neurons in culture to study the signaling mechanisms of AT1 and AT2 receptors. Neuronal AT1(More)
The type 1 angiotensin II (AII) receptor (AT1-R) has been implicated in the physiological actions mediated by AII in the brain. In view of the reported hyperactivity of the brain AII system in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), we compared the expression of AT1-R mRNAs in the brains of normotensive [Wistar Kyoto (WKY)] and SHR animals. Northern blot(More)
Aside from its well-known and numerous actions at peripheral tissues, the octapeptide angiotensin II (ANG II) elicits specific receptor-mediated effects within the central nervous system. In this review we focus on the receptor-mediated actions of ANG II on neurons. The distribution of ANG II receptors in the brain and physiological, electrophysiological,(More)
The use of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has great potential for the development of drugs designed to knock down the expression of damage- or disease-causing genes. However, because of the high molecular weight and negative charge of siRNA, it is restricted from crossing the blood-cochlear barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules that(More)
MAP kinase stimulation is a key signaling event in the AT1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated chronic stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter in brain neurons by angiotensin II (Ang II). In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAP kinase in AT1R phosphorylation to further our understanding of these persistent neuromodulatory(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II), via the activation of the AT1 and AT2 receptors regulates electrophysiological responses of catecholaminergic neurons. This study was designed to determine if functional interactions between AT1 and AT2 receptors exist in a single neuron. Ang II caused two unique electrophysiological responses characteristic of receptor crosstalk.(More)
Increased brain angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression has been implicated in the hyperactive brain angiotensin system and the development and maintenance of hypertension in the genetically spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat. Neuronal cells in primary culture from the cardioregulatory-relevant brain areas (hypothalamus/brainstem) mimic(More)