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Anopheles fluviatilis and An. minimus complexes,each comprising of at least three sibling species, are closely related and important malaria vectors in Oriental Region. Recently An. fluviatilis species S, which is a highly efficient malaria vector in India, has been made conspecific with An. minimus species C (senior synonym) on the basis of homology in 335(More)
The failure of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, to stimulate a pro-inflammatory response following entry into macrophages has been well reported. This occurs in spite of the fact that ligands for the toll-like receptors (TLR) have been recently shown on the parasite surface and their role in disease protection well documented. The outcome of infection(More)
ESAT6 has recently been demonstrated to cause haemolysis and macrophage lysis. Our studies demonstrate that ESAT6 causes cytolysis of type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes. Both types of pneumocytes express membrane laminin, and ESAT6 exhibits dose-dependent binding to both cell types and to purified human laminin. While minimal ESAT6 was detected on the surface of(More)
Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major vectors of malaria in India, is a complex of at least three cryptic species provisionally designated as species S, T, and U. Identification of the cryptic species of An. fluviatilis complex is of paramount importance in disease control program due to contrasting differences in their vectorial efficiency, preference(More)
We have reported previously the identification of novel proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the immunoscreening of an expression library of M. tuberculosis genomic DNA with sera obtained from M. tuberculosis-infected rabbits at 5 weeks postinfection. In this study, we report the further characterization of one of these antigens, LipC (Rv0220). LipC is(More)
A multiplex PCR assay was developed using the sequences of the D2 region of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to discriminate the five members of the Anopheles culicifacies complex provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D and E. Two minus strand primers derived from sequence differences in the D2 variable region and a universal plus strand primer derived from(More)
BACKGROUND Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. METHODS Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using(More)