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An experiment was performed at the National Library of Medicine((R)) (NLM((R))) in word sense disambiguation (WSD) using the Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) methodology. The motivation is the need to solve the ambiguity problem confronting NLM's MetaMap system, which maps free text to terms corresponding to concepts in NLM's Unified Medical Language(More)
Evaluation is a major driving force in advancing the state of the art in language technologies. In particular, methods for automatically assessing the quality of machine output is the preferred method for measuring progress, provided that these metrics have been validated against human judgments. Following recent developments in the automatic evaluation of(More)
We describe a natural language processing system (Enhanced SemRep) to identify core assertions on pharmacogenomics in Medline citations. Extracted information is represented as semantic predications covering a range of relations relevant to this domain. The specific relations addressed by the system provide greater precision than that achievable with(More)
Despite its intuitive appeal, the hypothesis that retrieval at the level of "concepts" should outperform purely term-based approaches remains unverified empirically. In addition, the use of "knowledge" has not consistently resulted in performance gains. After identifying possible reasons for previous negative results, we present a novel framework for(More)
The ability to accurately model the content structure of text is important for many natural language processing applications. This paper describes experiments with generative models for analyzing the discourse structure of medical abstracts , which generally follow the pattern of " introduction " , " methods " , " results " , and " conclusions ". We(More)
Bilingual term lists are extensively used as a resource for dictionary-based Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR), in which the goal is to find documents written in one natural language based on queries that are expressed in another. This paper identifies eight types of terms that affect retrieval effectiveness in CLIR applications through their(More)
We present a methodology that automatically selects indexing algorithms for each heading in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), National Library of Medicine's vocabulary for indexing MEDLINE. While manually comparing indexing methods is manageable with a limited number of MeSH headings, a large number of them make automation of this selection desirable.(More)
OBJECTIVES We analyzed the extent to which comparative effectiveness research (CER) organizations share terms for designs, analyzed coverage of CER designs in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Emtree, and explored whether scientists use CER design terms. METHODS We developed local terminologies (LTs) and a CER design terminology by extracting terms in(More)
The combination of recent developments in question-answering research and the availability of unparalleled resources developed specifically for automatic semantic processing of text in the medical domain provides a unique opportunity to explore complex question answering in the domain of clinical medicine. This article presents a system designed to satisfy(More)
The paradigm of evidence-based medicine (EBM) recommends that physicians formulate clinical questions in terms of the problem/population, intervention, comparison, and outcome. Together, these elements comprise a PICO frame. Although this framework was developed to facilitate the formulation of clinical queries, the ability of PICO structures to represent(More)