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An experiment was performed at the National Library of Medicine((R)) (NLM((R))) in word sense disambiguation (WSD) using the Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) methodology. The motivation is the need to solve the ambiguity problem confronting NLM's MetaMap system, which maps free text to terms corresponding to concepts in NLM's Unified Medical Language(More)
We present a methodology that automatically selects indexing algorithms for each heading in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), National Library of Medicine's vocabulary for indexing MEDLINE. While manually comparing indexing methods is manageable with a limited number of MeSH headings, a large number of them make automation of this selection desirable.(More)
Evaluation is a major driving force in advancing the state of the art in language technologies. In particular, methods for automatically assessing the quality of machine output is the preferred method for measuring progress, provided that these metrics have been validated against human judgments. Following recent developments in the automatic evaluation of(More)
The paradigm of evidence-based medicine (EBM) recommends that physicians formulate clinical questions in terms of the problem/population, intervention, comparison, and outcome. Together, these elements comprise a PICO frame. Although this framework was developed to facilitate the formulation of clinical queries, the ability of PICO structures to represent(More)
The combination of recent developments in question-answering research and the availability of unparalleled resources developed specifically for automatic semantic processing of text in the medical domain provides a unique opportunity to explore complex question answering in the domain of clinical medicine. This article presents a system designed to satisfy(More)
We describe a natural language processing system (Enhanced SemRep) to identify core assertions on pharmacogenomics in Medline citations. Extracted information is represented as semantic predications covering a range of relations relevant to this domain. The specific relations addressed by the system provide greater precision than that achievable with(More)
The ability to accurately model the content structure of text is important for many natural language processing applications. This paper describes experiments with generative models for analyzing the discourse structure of medical abstracts , which generally follow the pattern of " introduction " , " methods " , " results " , and " conclusions ". We(More)
This paper describes the application of an ensemble of indexing and classification systems, which have been shown to be successful in information retrieval and classification of medical literature, to a new task of assigning ICD-9-CM codes to the clinical history and impression sections of radiology reports. The basic methods used are: a modification of the(More)
This paper presents a hybrid approach to question answering in the clinical domain that combines techniques from summarization and information retrieval. We tackle a frequently-occurring class of questions that takes the form " What is the best drug treatment for X? " Starting from an initial set of MEDLINE citations, our system first identifies the drugs(More)
Despite its intuitive appeal, the hypothesis that retrieval at the level of "concepts" should outperform purely term-based approaches remains unverified empirically. In addition, the use of "knowledge" has not consistently resulted in performance gains. After identifying possible reasons for previous negative results, we present a novel framework for(More)