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A 553-GHz quadruple-push oscillator is demonstrated using low leakage transistors in 45-nm CMOS. The currents of coupling transistors of a quadrature oscillator were summed up to implement quadruple pushing. Quasi-optical measurements showed that the circuit generates 4 th harmonic signal at 553 GHz with the power level of 220 nW, while suppressing unwanted(More)
Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for(More)
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