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We have established the presence of at least two large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the developing chick brain, one that reacts exclusively with HNK-1, a carbohydrate epitope found on several neural specific molecules, and one that reacts with S103L, a defined peptide epitope in the CS-2 domain of the cartilage-specific chondroitin sulfate(More)
Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that C-6 glial cells in culture exhibit astrocytic properties with increasing cell passage. In this study, we tested the responsiveness of early and late passage C-6 glial cells to various cultures conditions: culture substrata (collagen, poly-L-lysine, plastic), or supplements for the culture medium, DMEM,(More)
The protein product of the neurofibromatosis 1 gene, neurofibromin, is abundantly expressed in the cerebral cortex during development, but its physiological role remains unknown. To gain insights into the functions of neurofibromin in neurons, we examined patterns of expression and subcellular localization of neurofibromin during neuronal differentiation.(More)
Cells from human amniotic fluid derived from the fetus are considered a source of multipotent cells. Their properties have not been fully exploited, partially because unlike other embryonic sources such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, cell lines from amniocentesis samples have not been generated. We have established and characterized the properties of eight(More)
Cultures were prepared by dissociating 3-day-old whole chick embryos, or 6- or 8-day-old chick embryo cerebral hemispheres. The dispersed cells were plated onto poly-L-lysine coated dishes in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium fortified with 10% fetal bovine calf serum. Immunocytochemistry, histochemistry and biochemistry were used to characterize the(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) of the extracellular matrix may play regulatory roles in central nervous system (CNS) development. We have examined the expression of two large CSPGs of the embryonic chick brain, which can be differentiated using the monoclonal antibodies HNK-1 and S103L, in cultures of embryonic day 6 chick cerebral hemisphere(More)
PKC, Ras, and ERK1/2 signaling is pivotal to differentiation along the neuronal cell lineage. One crucial protein that may play a central role in this signaling pathway is the Ras GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin, a PKC substrate that may exert a positive role in neuronal differentiation. In this report, we studied the dynamics of PKC/Ras/ERK(More)
In normal development, embryonic astrocytes progress through their cell lineage by acquiring differentiation, by apoptosis, and by proliferation. In this study, we show that embryonic astrocytes may maintain and make gains in differentiation as they simultaneously progress through one cell cycle when induced by prolactin (PRL). Prolactin induced the(More)
Primary astrocytic cultures derived from day-15 chick embryo (E15) cerebral hemispheres (CH) or cerebellum (CB) express a calcium/phospholipid-dependent isoform as the major protein kinase C (PKC-alpha/beta). PKC was activated (translocation of activity from cytosol to membrane) following stimulation with carbachol, so we tested for activation of(More)
Cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1Rs) play important roles in the regulation of dendritic branching, synapse density, and synaptic transmission through multiple G-protein-coupled signaling systems, including the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2. The proximal signaling interactions leading to ERK1/2 activation by CB1R in CNS remain,(More)