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We have established the presence of at least two large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the developing chick brain, one that reacts exclusively with HNK-1, a carbohydrate epitope found on several neural specific molecules, and one that reacts with S103L, a defined peptide epitope in the CS-2 domain of the cartilage-specific chondroitin sulfate(More)
Cells from human amniotic fluid derived from the fetus are considered a source of multipotent cells. Their properties have not been fully exploited, partially because unlike other embryonic sources such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, cell lines from amniocentesis samples have not been generated. We have established and characterized the properties of eight(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) of the extracellular matrix may play regulatory roles in central nervous system (CNS) development. We have examined the expression of two large CSPGs of the embryonic chick brain, which can be differentiated using the monoclonal antibodies HNK-1 and S103L, in cultures of embryonic day 6 chick cerebral hemisphere(More)
PKC, Ras, and ERK1/2 signaling is pivotal to differentiation along the neuronal cell lineage. One crucial protein that may play a central role in this signaling pathway is the Ras GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin, a PKC substrate that may exert a positive role in neuronal differentiation. In this report, we studied the dynamics of PKC/Ras/ERK(More)
Cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1Rs) play important roles in the regulation of dendritic branching, synapse density, and synaptic transmission through multiple G-protein-coupled signaling systems, including the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2. The proximal signaling interactions leading to ERK1/2 activation by CB1R in CNS remain,(More)
This review explores the role of individual opioid receptor types and signal transduction pathways on cell growth and differentiation. The findings reviewed herein provide suggestive evidence that while no single opioid receptor or peptide type exclusively regulates growth, depending on the cell type, the activation of all three (mu, delta, or kappa) opioid(More)
G-protein coupled receptors may mediate their effects on neuronal growth and differentiation through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), often elicited by transactivation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. This elaborate signaling process includes inducible formation and trafficking of multiprotein signaling complexes(More)
Activation of PKCɛ, an abundant and developmentally regulated PKC isoform in the brain, has been implicated in memory throughout life and across species. Yet, direct evidence for a mechanistic role for PKCɛ in memory is still lacking. Hence, we sought to evaluate this in rats, using short-term treatments with two PKCɛ-selective peptides, the inhibitory(More)
Proteoglycans of developing chick brain were distinguished on the basis of reactivity with four well characterized antibody reagents (S103L, to the CS-rich domain; HNK-1, to 6-sulfated glucuronic acid; 1-C-3, to the HABr region and 5-D-4, to KS chains). One chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan reacted exclusively with S103L and 1-C-3 and not with the other two(More)
The protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, a major regulator of chondrocytic differentiation, has been also implicated in pathological extracellular matrix remodeling, and here we investigate the mechanism of PKCε-dependent regulation of the chondrocytic phenotype in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells derived from herniated disks. NP cells from each donor were(More)