Dimiter S. Dimitrov

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The third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is immunodominant and contains features essential for coreceptor binding. We determined the structure of V3 in the context of an HIV-1 gp120 core complexed to the CD4 receptor and to the X5 antibody at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Binding of gp120 to cell-surface CD4 would position V3 so(More)
The remarkable diversity, glycosylation and conformational flexibility of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env), including substantial rearrangement of the gp120 glycoprotein upon binding the CD4 receptor, allow it to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Despite this complexity, the HIV-1 Env must retain conserved determinants(More)
Multiple commercial microarrays for measuring genome-wide gene expression levels are currently available, including oligonucleotide and cDNA, single- and two-channel formats. This study reports on the results of gene expression measurements generated from identical RNA preparations that were obtained using three commercially available microarray platforms.(More)
Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) including b12, 2G12, and 2F5 exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. However, their elicitation in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) has not been successful. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved a strategy to reduce or eliminate the(More)
Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies whose binding to gp120 is enhanced by CD4 binding (CD4i antibodies) are generally considered nonneutralizing for primary HIV-1 isolates. However, a novel CD4i-specific Fab fragment, X5, has recently been found to neutralize a wide range of primary isolates. To investigate the precise nature of the(More)
The site on HIV-1 gp120 that binds to the CD4 receptor is vulnerable to antibodies. However, most antibodies that interact with this site cannot neutralize HIV-1. To understand the basis of this resistance, we determined co-crystal structures for two poorly neutralizing, CD4-binding site (CD4BS) antibodies, F105 and b13, in complexes with gp120. Both(More)
The conserved surface of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds to the HIV-1 coreceptor is protected from humoral recognition by multiple layers of camouflage. Here we present sequence and genomic analyses for 12 antibodies that pierce these defenses and determine the crystal structures of 5. The data reveal mechanisms and atomic-level details for(More)
Neutralizing antibodies can confer immunity to primate lentiviruses by blocking infection in macaque models of AIDS. However, earlier studies of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibodies administered to infected individuals or humanized mice reported poor control of virus replication and the rapid emergence of resistant(More)
HIV-1 entry into cells involves formation of a complex between gp120 of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), a receptor (CD4), and a coreceptor, typically CCR5. Here we provide evidence that purified gp120(JR-FL)-CD4-CCR5 complexes exhibit an epitope recognized by a Fab (X5) obtained by selection of a phage display library from a seropositive donor with a(More)