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Predictions concerning development, interrelations, and possible independence of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility were tested in 325 participants (roughly 30 per age from 4 to 13 years and young adults; 50% female). All were tested on the same computerized battery, designed to manipulate memory and inhibition independently and together,(More)
Mouse models are useful for studying genes involved in behavior, but whether they are relevant to human behavior is unclear. Here, we identified parallel phenotypes in mice and humans resulting from a common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior. An inbred genetic(More)
Concepts of objects as enduring and complete across space and time have been documented in infants within several months after birth, but little is known about how such concepts arise during development. Current theories that stress innate knowledge may neglect the potential contributions of experience to guide acquisition of object concepts. To examine(More)
There has been a dramatic rise in gene x environment studies of human behavior over the past decade that have moved the field beyond simple nature versus nurture debates. These studies offer promise in accounting for more variability in behavioral and biological phenotypes than studies that focus on genetic or experiential factors alone. They also provide(More)
The day-night task requires saying "night" to a picture of the sun and "day" to a picture of the moon. In this investigation of why young children fail at this task, systematic variations of the task were administered to 96 children, half 4 years old and half 4 1/2 years old. Training children on the strategy of chunking the 2 rules into I ("say the(More)
stimuli in infants: A longitudinal study. Infancy, 6, 231–255. Johnson, M. H. (1990). Cortical maturation and the development of visual attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 81–95. Johnson, M. H., Gilmore, R. O., & Csibra, G. (1998). Toward a computational model of the development of saccade planning. In J. E. Richards (Ed.), Cognitive(More)
The authors examined how visual selection mechanisms may relate to developing cognitive functions in infancy. Twenty-two 3-month-old infants were tested in 2 tasks on the same day: perceptual completion and visual search. In the perceptual completion task, infants were habituated to a partly occluded moving rod and subsequently presented with unoccluded(More)
Visual attention functions as a filter to select environmental information for learning and memory, making it the first step in the eventual cascade of thought and action systems. Here, we review studies of typical and atypical visual attention development and explain how they offer insights into the mechanisms of adult visual attention. We detail(More)
One of the oldest questions in cognitive science is whether cognitive operations are modular or distributed across domains. We propose that fMRI has made a unique contribution to this question by elucidating the nature of structure-function relations. We focus our discussion on language, which is the classic domain for arguments in favor of domain(More)
BACKGROUND Most anxiety and depressive disorders are twice as common in women compared with men, and the sex difference in prevalence typically emerges during adolescence. Hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle and during the postpartum and perimenopausal periods are associated with increased risk for anxiety and depression symptoms. In humans and(More)