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Predictions concerning development, interrelations, and possible independence of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility were tested in 325 participants (roughly 30 per age from 4 to 13 years and young adults; 50% female). All were tested on the same computerized battery, designed to manipulate memory and inhibition independently and together,(More)
Mouse models are useful for studying genes involved in behavior, but whether they are relevant to human behavior is unclear. Here, we identified parallel phenotypes in mice and humans resulting from a common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior. An inbred genetic(More)
Concepts of objects as enduring and complete across space and time have been documented in infants within several months after birth, but little is known about how such concepts arise during development. Current theories that stress innate knowledge may neglect the potential contributions of experience to guide acquisition of object concepts. To examine(More)
The day-night task requires saying "night" to a picture of the sun and "day" to a picture of the moon. In this investigation of why young children fail at this task, systematic variations of the task were administered to 96 children, half 4 years old and half 4 1/2 years old. Training children on the strategy of chunking the 2 rules into I ("say the(More)
We examined changes in the efficiency of visual selection over the first postnatal year with an adapted version of a spatial negative priming paradigm. In this task, when a previously ignored location becomes the target to be selected, responses to it are impaired, providing a measure of visual selection. Oculomotor latencies to target selection were the(More)
This study examined the contribution of visual salience to bottom-up attention orienting to faces in cluttered natural scenes across development. We eye tracked participants 4 months to 24 years of age as they freely viewed 16 natural scenes, all of which had faces in them. In half, the face was also the winner-take-all salient area in the display as(More)
One of the oldest questions in cognitive science is whether cognitive operations are modular or distributed across domains. We propose that fMRI has made a unique contribution to this question by elucidating the nature of structure-function relations. We focus our discussion on language, which is the classic domain for arguments in favor of domain(More)
We used an fMRI/eye-tracking approach to examine the mechanisms involved in learning to segment a novel, occluded object in a scene. Previous research has suggested a role for effective visual sampling and prior experience in the development of mature object perception. However, it remains unclear how the naive system integrates across variable sampled(More)
We examined the relation between the emergence of visual selection mechanisms and object perception in infancy. Twenty-two 3-month-old infants participated in both a perceptual completion and a visual search task. In the perceptual completion task, infants were habituated to a partly occluded moving rod and subsequently viewed unoccluded broken and complete(More)
There has been a dramatic rise in gene x environment studies of human behavior over the past decade that have moved the field beyond simple nature versus nurture debates. These studies offer promise in accounting for more variability in behavioral and biological phenotypes than studies that focus on genetic or experiential factors alone. They also provide(More)