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Concepts of objects as enduring and complete across space and time have been documented in infants within several months after birth, but little is known about how such concepts arise during development. Current theories that stress innate knowledge may neglect the potential contributions of experience to guide acquisition of object concepts. To examine(More)
Mouse models are useful for studying genes involved in behavior, but whether they are relevant to human behavior is unclear. Here, we identified parallel phenotypes in mice and humans resulting from a common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior. An inbred genetic(More)
The day-night task requires saying "night" to a picture of the sun and "day" to a picture of the moon. In this investigation of why young children fail at this task, systematic variations of the task were administered to 96 children, half 4 years old and half 4 1/2 years old. Training children on the strategy of chunking the 2 rules into I ("say the(More)
One of the oldest questions in cognitive science is whether cognitive operations are modular or distributed across domains. We propose that fMRI has made a unique contribution to this question by elucidating the nature of structure-function relations. We focus our discussion on language, which is the classic domain for arguments in favor of domain(More)
This study examined the contribution of visual salience to bottom-up attention orienting to faces in cluttered natural scenes across development. We eye tracked participants 4 months to 24 years of age as they freely viewed 16 natural scenes, all of which had faces in them. In half, the face was also the winner-take-all salient area in the display as(More)
We examined changes in the efficiency of visual selection over the first postnatal year with an adapted version of a spatial negative priming paradigm. In this task, when a previously ignored location becomes the target to be selected, responses to it are impaired , providing a measure of visual selection. Oculomotor latencies to target selection were the(More)
We used an fMRI/eye-tracking approach to examine the mechanisms involved in learning to segment a novel, occluded object in a scene. Previous research has suggested a role for effective visual sampling and prior experience in the development of mature object perception. However, it remains unclear how the naive system integrates across variable sampled(More)
A fundamental question of perceptual development concerns how infants come to perceive partly hidden objects as unified across a spatial gap imposed by an occluder. Much is known about the time course of development of perceptual completion during the first several months after birth, as well as some of the visual information that supports unity perception(More)
The authors examined how visual selection mechanisms may relate to developing cognitive functions in infancy. Twenty-two 3-month-old infants were tested in 2 tasks on the same day: perceptual completion and visual search. In the perceptual completion task, infants were habituated to a partly occluded moving rod and subsequently presented with unoccluded(More)
Using fMRI and a learning paradigm, this study examined the independent contributions of the hippocampus and striatum to simple association and frequency-based learning. We scanned 10 right-handed young adult subjects using a spiral in/out sequence on a GE 3.0 T scanner during performance of the learning paradigm. The paradigm consisted of 2 cues that(More)