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OBJECTIVES To describe the progression times of HIV-1 infection from seroconversion to AIDS and to death, and time from first developing AIDS to death in rural Uganda. Also, to describe the proportion of individuals within the cohort dying with AIDS and the CD4 lymphocyte count before death. DESIGN A prospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort. (More)
BACKGROUND Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England. METHODS Patients of all ages and with symptoms suggestive of encephalitis were actively recruited for 2 years (staged start between October,(More)
BACKGROUND An association between HIV-1 and malaria is expected in theory, but has not been convincingly shown in practice. We studied the effects of HIV-1 infection and advancing immunosuppression on falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria. METHODS HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adults selected from a population-based cohort in rural Uganda were(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the rate of progression from seroconversion to symptomatic disease in adults infected with HIV-1, and to establish whether the background level of signs and symptoms commonly associated with HIV-1 in uninfected controls are likely to affect progression rates. DESIGN Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of people infected with(More)
BACKGROUND Indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly diagnosed in England due to a better awareness and understanding of the virus. However, the true burden of infection and therefore its implication to public health remains undefined. OBJECTIVES To estimate the HEV seroprevalence in the general population and to investigate how the risk of HEV(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 is uncommon in humans in the UK. In July 2010, the Health Protection Agency reported an excess isolation rate of pan-susceptible S. Typhimurium DT8 in England and Northern Ireland. By the end of October, this amounted to 81 laboratory-confirmed human cases for all regions of England and(More)
BACKGROUND While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related causes of death have been well documented in developed countries, in Africa data are scanty and mainly based on autopsy studies from city hospitals which are highly selective and may not represent causes of HIV-associated deaths in the general population. This study, from a rural population,(More)
BACKGROUND Enhanced surveillance and molecular characterisation studies of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in England and Wales have been undertaken since 2003. The dynamics of hepatitis E have changed recently with an increase in the number of indigenous cases and an observed viral shift. METHODS HEV antibody and RNA data were analysed to ascertain the annual(More)
The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression was investigated in 1045 adults in Uganda. At enrollment and every 6 months, a clinical history, examination, and laboratory investigations that included CD4 cell counts were done. HIV-1 envelope subtype was assessed mainly by peptide serology(More)