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In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis continues only in few regions of the forebrain. The molecular signals governing neurogenesis in these unique neurogenic niches, however, are still ill defined. Here, we show that bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-mediated signaling is active in adult neural stem cells and is crucial to initiate the neurogenic lineage in the(More)
Reactive gliosis is the universal reaction to brain injury, but the precise origin and subsequent fate of the glial cells reacting to injury are unknown. Astrocytes react to injury by hypertrophy and up-regulation of the glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Whereas mature astrocytes do not normally divide, a subpopulation of the reactive GFAP(+) cells(More)
As a result of brain injury, astrocytes become activated and start to proliferate in the vicinity of the injury site. Recently, we had demonstrated that these reactive astrocytes, or glia, can form self-renewing and multipotent neurospheres in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that it is only invasive injury, such as stab wounding or cerebral(More)
Growth cones enable axons to navigate toward their targets by responding to extracellular signaling molecules. Growth-cone responses are mediated in part by the local translation of axonal messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, the mechanisms that regulate local translation are poorly understood. Here we show that Robo3.2, a receptor for the Slit family of(More)
Gene expression changes during cell differentiation are thought to be coordinated by histone modifications, but still little is known about the role of specific histone deacetylases (HDACs) in cell fate decisions in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the catalytic function of HDAC2 is required in adult, but not embryonic neurogenesis. While brain development(More)
BACKGROUND Organs are programmed to acquire a particular size during development, but the regulatory mechanisms that dictate when dividing progenitor cells should permanently exit the cell cycle and stop producing additional daughter cells are poorly understood. In differentiated tissues, tumor suppressor genes maintain a constant cell number and intact(More)
We define the neurological characteristics of familial cases from multiple branches of a large consanguineous family with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation (MR), and dysequilibrium syndrome type 3 caused by a mutation in the recently cloned CA8 gene. The linkage analysis revealed a high logarithm of the odds (LOD) score region on 8q that harbors the CA8(More)
Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, and hence typically has a poor prognosis. To identify distinct molecular mechanisms for early HCC we developed a rat model of liver regeneration post-hepatectomy, as well as liver cells undergoing malignant(More)
BACKGROUND The cyclin-D/CDK4,6/p16(INK4a)/pRB/E2F pathway, a key regulator of the critical G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle, is universally disrupted in human cancer. However, the precise function of the different members of this pathway and their functional interplay are still not well defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We have shown here(More)