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Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult hippocampus divide infrequently, and the molecules that modulate their quiescence are largely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is active in hippocampal NSCs, downstream of BMPR-IA. BMPs reversibly diminish proliferation of cultured NSCs while maintaining their undifferentiated(More)
Reactive gliosis is the universal reaction to brain injury, but the precise origin and subsequent fate of the glial cells reacting to injury are unknown. Astrocytes react to injury by hypertrophy and up-regulation of the glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Whereas mature astrocytes do not normally divide, a subpopulation of the reactive GFAP(+) cells(More)
As a result of brain injury, astrocytes become activated and start to proliferate in the vicinity of the injury site. Recently, we had demonstrated that these reactive astrocytes, or glia, can form self-renewing and multipotent neurospheres in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that it is only invasive injury, such as stab wounding or cerebral(More)
In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis continues only in few regions of the forebrain. The molecular signals governing neurogenesis in these unique neurogenic niches, however, are still ill defined. Here, we show that bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-mediated signaling is active in adult neural stem cells and is crucial to initiate the neurogenic lineage in the(More)
Epigenetic gene silencing is seen in several repeat-expansion diseases. In fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic form of mental retardation, a CGG trinucleotide-repeat expansion adjacent to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene promoter results in its epigenetic silencing. Here, we show that FMR1 silencing is mediated by the FMR1 mRNA. The(More)
Hereditary hyperekplexia (HH) is a disorder of the inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmitter system. Mutations in five genes have been reported to cause the disease. However, only single mutation in GLRB, the gene encoding beta-subunit of the glycine receptor, in a singleton patient with HH has been found to date. In this study, 13 patients with HH were(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene that appears to occur during oogenesis and during early embryogenesis. One model proposes that repeat instability depends on the replication fork direction through the repeats such that (CNG)n hairpin-like structures form, causing DNA polymerase to stall and slip. Examining DNA(More)
Gene expression changes during cell differentiation are thought to be coordinated by histone modifications, but still little is known about the role of specific histone deacetylases (HDACs) in cell fate decisions in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the catalytic function of HDAC2 is required in adult, but not embryonic neurogenesis. While brain development(More)
Growth cones enable axons to navigate toward their targets by responding to extracellular signaling molecules. Growth-cone responses are mediated in part by the local translation of axonal messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, the mechanisms that regulate local translation are poorly understood. Here we show that Robo3.2, a receptor for the Slit family of(More)