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Nepal is having a series of enteric fever epidemics over the last decade1,2 with changing resistance patterns.3 The fi rst report of multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in Nepal was published in 1991.4 In the following years, with the introduction of fl uoroquinolones in the treatment, nalidixic acid-resistant strains associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes several suppurative and non suppurative infections. In addition to pharyngitis and skin infections, GAS are also the causative agent of post-streptococcal infection syndromes such as acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and post-streptococcal glumerulonephritis (PSG). GAS frequently colonises in(More)
Antenatal care has several benefits for expecting mothers and birth outcomes; yet many mothers do not utilise this service in Nepal. Mass media may play an important role in increasing the use of antenatal care and other maternal health services. However, the effect of mass media on increasing health service utilisation has remained an under studied area in(More)
With an aim to evaluate the isolation rate and antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, 656 blood samples collected from clinically diagnosed enteric fever patients at National Public Health Laboratory, Nepal during January through December 2008 were processed. Isolates were identified by standard(More)
Cholera continued to be a major diarrheal illness in Nepal and antibiotic resistance has appeared as a serious problem in cholera management. The study aimed at analyzing the distribution pattern of the resistotypes (R-types) of Vibrio cholerae in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. During June 2008 to January 2009, 210 diarrheal specimens received at National(More)
BACKGROUND Disc diffusion technique is the routine susceptibility testing procedure for isolates of enteric fever, the most common clinical diagnosis among febrile patients in Nepal. OBJECTIVE To evaluated the current fluoroquinolones (FQs) susceptibility criteria and nalidixic acid screening test in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A. (More)
Background Despite greater emphasis on maternal and neonatal health through policy and programming in Nepal, maternal and neonatal health is still not impressive. Health care providers' knowledge assessment on maternal and neonatal care has been well documented elsewhere, but it is very little understood in Nepal. Objective The primary objective of this(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco use among women during pregnancy leading to poor maternal and child health outcomes has been well documented. However, factors influencing use of smokeless tobacco in Nepal has not yet been well established. This study aims at exploring the factors related to smokeless tobacco use among pregnant women in rural southern Terai of Nepal. (More)
Temocillin is relatively more stable against most β-lactamases and requires re-evaluation to include it in common clinical practice as a therapeutic alternative. At the National Reference Laboratory of Nepal, we evaluated multidrug resistance (MDR) and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes among 292 gram-negative clinical bacterial isolates of 18(More)
Diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. While the childhood diarrhoea and its association with child feeding, and hygiene, hand washing and water treatment are studied elsewhere, the association of water handling and child feeding with childhood diarrhoea is an understudied area in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate the(More)