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Insertion behaviour of microneedle (MN) arrays depends upon the mechanical properties of the skin and, MN geometry and distribution in an array. In addressing this issue, this paper studies MN array insertion mechanism into skin and provides a simple quantitative basis to relate the insertion force with distance between two MNs. The presented framework is(More)
A set of laboratory experiments has been carried out to determine if micro-needles (MNs) can enhance penetration depths of high-speed micro-particles delivered by a type of gene gun. The micro-particles were fired into a model target material, agarose gel, which was prepared to mimic the viscoelastic properties of porcine skin. The agarose gel was chosen as(More)
CONTEXT Gene guns have been used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loaded micro-particle and breach the muscle tissue to target cells of interest to achieve gene transfection. OBJECTIVE This article aims to discuss the potential of microneedle (MN) assisted micro-particle delivery from gene guns, with a view to reducing tissue damage. METHODS Using(More)
Improving drug permeability in the skin is one of the most important issues for designing new methods of transdermal drug delivery. Consequently, many techniques have been proposed to effectively deliver drugs across the stratum corneum. The microneedle is a new technology to enhance transdermal delivery of high-molecular-weight drugs. This technique(More)
Transdermal drug delivery is limited by the high resistance of skin towards diffusion of high-molecular-weight drugs. This is mainly because of the fact that the outer layer of the skin, that is the stratum corneum, can prevent diffusion of molecules whose molecular weight is greater than 500 Da. Sonophoresis can be used to enhance the permeability of the(More)
There has been an increasing interest in applying biotechnology in formulating and characterising new and innovative drug delivery methods, e.g., drug-loaded biodegradable microneedles within the area of transdermal delivery technology. Recently, microneedles have been proposed for use in pain management, e.g., post-operative pain management through(More)
In the past few years, a number of microneedle designs have been proposed for transdermal drug delivery of high molecular weight drugs. However, most of them do not increase the drug permeability in skin significantly. In other cases, designs developed based on certain criteria (e.g. strength of the microneedles) have failed to meet other criteria (e.g.(More)
The technology of fabricating microneedle arrays to deliver high molecular weight drugs across skin in a minimally invasive manner is receiving increasing attention. Microneedle arrays with different geometries have been manufactured using materials such as glass, polymer, metal, etc. However, a framework that can identify the optimum designs of these(More)
A set of well-defined experiments has been carried out to explore whether microneedles (MNs) can enhance the penetration depths of microparticles moving at high velocity such as those expected in gene guns for delivery of gene-loaded microparticles into target tissues. These experiments are based on applying solid MNs that are used to reduce the effect of(More)
Transdermal drug delivery using microneedles (MNs) depends on the rate of drug transport through the viable epidermis. Therefore, minimising the distance between the drug-loaded surface and the microcirculation in the dermis where the drug is absorbed into the body is significant in improving drug delivery efficiency. A quantifiable relationship between MN(More)