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OBJECTIVES A critical step before treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is the correct staging of the disease. As late stage is established when trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the central nervous system, we hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinases and cell adhesion molecules could indicate, alone or in combination, the(More)
BACKGROUND Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a parasitic tropical disease. It progresses from the first, haemolymphatic stage to a neurological second stage due to invasion of parasites into the central nervous system (CNS). As treatment depends on the stage of disease, there is a critical need for tools that(More)
The accuracy of diagnostic tests for HIV in patients with tropical infections is poorly documented. Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is characterized by a polyclonal B-cell activation, constituting a risk for false-positive reactions to diagnostic tests, including HIV tests. A retrospective study of the accuracy of HIV diagnostic tests was performed with(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), caused by infection with sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b.), manifests as a hemolymphatic stage followed by an encephalitic stage. The distinction of the two stages needs improvement as drugs used for the late stage are highly toxic. Transcripts encoding 16 secreted proteins differentially expressed in the brains(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular methods have great potential for sensitive parasite detection in the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but the requirements in terms of laboratory infrastructure limit their use to reference centres. A recently developed assay detects the Trypanozoon repetitive insertion mobile element (RIME) DNA under isothermal(More)
BACKGROUND Sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a protozoan disease that affects rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Determination of the disease stage, essential for correct treatment, represents a key issue in the management of patients. In the present study we evaluated the potential of CXCL10, CXCL13, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9,(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a parasitic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, transmitted to humans through the bite of a tsetse fly. The first or hemolymphatic stage of the disease is associated with presence of parasites in the bloodstream, lymphatic system, and body tissues. If patients are left untreated, parasites cross the(More)
The role of mammalian skin in harbouring and transmitting arthropod-borne protozoan parasites has been overlooked for decades as these pathogens have been regarded primarily as blood-dwelling organisms. Intriguingly, infections with low or undetected blood parasites are common, particularly in the case of Human African Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma(More)
BACKGROUND Cure after treatment for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is assessed by examination of the cerebrospinal fluid every 6 months, for a total period of 2 years. So far, no markers for cure or treatment failure have been identified in blood. Trypanosome-specific antibodies are detectable in blood by the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis(More)