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Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for(More)
Hepatic guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency induces a deficiency of creatine/phosphocreatine in muscle and brain and an accumulation of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the precursor of creatine. We describe a patient with this defect, a 4-year-old girl with a dystonic-dyskinetic syndrome in addition to developmental delay and therapy-resistant(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the histological subtype of focal cortical dysplasia and dual pathology affect surgical outcome in patients with medically intractable epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). We retrospectively analysed the outcome of 67 patients from 2 to 66 years of age at follow-up periods of 6 to 48 months after(More)
Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency (McKusick 601240), an inborn error of creatine biosynthesis, is characterized by creatine depletion and accumulation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) in the brain. Treatment by oral creatine supplementation had no effect on the intractable seizures. Based on the possible role of GAA as an epileptogenic agent, we(More)
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are increasingly diagnosed as a cause of symptomatic focal epilepsy in paediatric and adult patients. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of epilepsy in these patients. In order to elucidate the clinical characteristics of their epilepsy, 120 pharmacoresistant patients including children and adults(More)
Both severe impairments of brain development in untreated infants and acute reversible neurotoxic effects on brain function are clinical features of phenylketonuria (PKU). For determining whether impairments of cerebral energy metabolism play a role in the pathophysiology of PKU, quantitative in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed(More)
PURPOSE Simultaneous interictal EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were used for noninvasive analysis of epileptogenicity in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). The results of two different approach methods (multiple source analysis of averaged spikes and single dipole peak localization of single spikes) were compared with pre- and postoperative(More)
Concentrations of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appear to be directly dependent upon their rate of production in the brain. There is evidence that the net release of short-chain monocarboxylic acids from the brain is a major route for removing these products of cerebral metabolism. Concentrations of organic acids in blood and CSF are largely(More)
Mutations in PRRT2 have been described in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and infantile convulsions with choreoathetosis (PKD with infantile seizures), and recently also in some families with benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) alone. We analyzed PRRT2 in 49 families and three sporadic cases with BFIS only of Italian, German, Turkish, and(More)
Due to the observation of severe neurological symptoms in single patients as well as brain imaging, neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities, the long-term prognosis of treated phenylketonuria is still under discussion. We investigated the neurological outcome of 57 (24 male, 33 female) patients with phenylketonuria (diet onset <3 months) at(More)