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Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency (McKusick 601240), an inborn error of creatine biosynthesis, is characterized by creatine depletion and accumulation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) in the brain. Treatment by oral creatine supplementation had no effect on the intractable seizures. Based on the possible role of GAA as an epileptogenic agent, we(More)
Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for(More)
Hepatic guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency induces a deficiency of creatine/phosphocreatine in muscle and brain and an accumulation of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the precursor of creatine. We describe a patient with this defect, a 4-year-old girl with a dystonic-dyskinetic syndrome in addition to developmental delay and therapy-resistant(More)
PURPOSE Simultaneous interictal EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were used for noninvasive analysis of epileptogenicity in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). The results of two different approach methods (multiple source analysis of averaged spikes and single dipole peak localization of single spikes) were compared with pre- and postoperative(More)
Concentrations of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appear to be directly dependent upon their rate of production in the brain. There is evidence that the net release of short-chain monocarboxylic acids from the brain is a major route for removing these products of cerebral metabolism. Concentrations of organic acids in blood and CSF are largely(More)
To evaluate the overall survival of paediatric patients with pontine gliomas treated with oral trophosphamide and etoposide. Patients between 3 and 17 years of age with either typical diffuse pontine glioma on MRI or histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme located in the pons, were eligible. Treatment consisted of oral(More)
Both severe impairments of brain development in untreated infants and acute reversible neurotoxic effects on brain function are clinical features of phenylketonuria (PKU). For determining whether impairments of cerebral energy metabolism play a role in the pathophysiology of PKU, quantitative in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed(More)
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are increasingly diagnosed as a cause of symptomatic focal epilepsy in paediatric and adult patients. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of epilepsy in these patients. In order to elucidate the clinical characteristics of their epilepsy, 120 pharmacoresistant patients including children and adults(More)
BACKGROUND Preradiation chemotherapy could be beneficial in malignant brain tumors, because the blood-brain tumor-barrier is disrupted after surgery, bone marrow recovery--essential for intense chemotherapy--is still intact, and CNS toxicity and ototoxicity of active drugs are lower before irradiation of a child's brain. PATIENTS AND METHODS A neoadjuvant(More)
The pharmacokinetics of valproic acid (VPA) and several metabolites were measured in 11 epileptic mothers and their 12 newborns. VPA was found in higher concentrations in cord serum than in maternal serum [(factor 1.7 +/- 0.6; (n = 6)]. VPA was excreted in the neonates with a mean half-life of 47 +/- 15 hr (n = 8) which is approximately 4 times the mean(More)