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Various models have been published calculating the light transport at the ocular fundus either for interpretation of in vivo reflectance measurements or for the prediction of photocoagulation effects. All these models took the absorption spectra of the pigments located at the ocular fundus, melanin, haemoglobin, xanthophyll, and the photoreceptor pigments,(More)
The purpose of this study was to measure the hemoglobin oxygenation in retinal vessels and to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the measurement. Using a fundus camera equipped with a special dual wavelength transmission filter and a color charge-coupled device camera, two monochromatic fundus images at 548 and 610 nm were recorded(More)
A new model of the reflection of the human ocular fundus on the basis of the adding-doubling method, an approximate solution of the radiative transport equation, is described. This model enables the calculation of the concentrations of xanthophyll in the retina, of melanin in the retinal pigment epithelium and the choroid, and of haemoglobin in the choroid(More)
The oxygen utilization and, therefore, the metabolic state, of a distinctive area of the retina may be calculated from the diameter of the supplying artery and vein, the haemoglobin oxygenation, and the velocity of the blood. The first two parameters can be determined by imaging spectrometry at the patients ocular fundus. However, the reflected light(More)
In seven diabetics of type 1 and seven of type 2, the flow physiologic magnitudes were measured in a retinal quadrant before and after photocoagulation. The segmental blood flow, the arterial flow velocity, and the diameters of artery and vein are smaller after photocoagulation than before. Investigations into the time course of the flow-physiologic(More)
PURPOSE Luminance flicker stimulation of the photoreceptors is known to increase retinal blood flow. Elevated blood velocity was determined using laser Doppler velocimetry, and increased vascular diameters during flicker were observed by measurements with a retinal vessel analyzer. Oxygen supply may be the target of the regulation of retinal blood flow.(More)
A highly diluted suspension of red blood cells (hematocrit 0.01) was illuminated with an Ar or a dye laser in the wavelength range of 458-660 nm. The extinction and the angle-resolved intensity of scattered light were measured and compared with the predictions of Mie theory, the Rayleigh-Gans approximation, and the anomalous diffraction approximation.(More)
A new simple method for two-dimensional determination of optical density of macular pigment xanthophyll (ODx) in clinical routine is based on a single blue-reflection fundus image. Individual different vignetting is corrected by a shading function. For its construction, nodes are automatically found in structureless image regions. The influence of stray(More)
BACKGROUND Longstanding diabetes mellitus results in a disturbed microcirculation. A new imaging oximeter was used to investigate the effect of this disturbance on retinal vessel oxygen saturation. METHODS The haemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured in the retinal arterioles and venules of 41 diabetic patients (65 +/- 12.3 years) with mild(More)
Functional alterations are first signs of a starting pathological process. A device that measures parameter for the characterization of the metabolism at the human eye-ground would be a helpful tool for early diagnostics in stages when alterations are yet reversible. Measurements of blood flow and of oxygen saturation are necessary but not sufficient. The(More)