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Dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate and other neurosteroids are synthesized in the CNS and peripheral nervous system where they may modulate neuronal excitability by interacting with ligand-gated ion channels. For this modulatory activity, neurosteroids have to be locally released from either neurons or glial cells. We here identify the integral membrane(More)
Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, symbol ABCC) are membrane glycoproteins that mediate the ATP-dependent export of organic anions, including cytotoxic and antiviral drugs, from cells. To identify MRP family members possibly involved in the intrinsic resistance of human brain to cytotoxic and antiviral drugs, we analyzed the expression and localization of(More)
Delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain and its neoplasms depends on the presence of membrane transport proteins in the blood-brain barrier and in the target cells. The cellular and subcellular localization of these membrane transporters determines the drug accessibility to the brain and its tumors. We therefore analyzed the expression and localization(More)
The release of glutathione disulfide has been considered an important process for the maintenance of a reduced thiol redox potential in cells during oxidative stress. In cultured rat astrocytes, permanent hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress caused a rapid increase in intracellular glutathione disulfide, which was followed by the appearance of(More)
The proinflammatory mediators leukotriene (LT) B(4) and LTC(4) must be transported out of cells before they can interact with LT receptors. Previously, we identified the multidrug resistance protein ABCC1 (MRP1) as an efflux pump for LTC(4). However, the molecular basis for the efflux of LTB(4) was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human ABCC4 mediates the(More)
Amatoxins are the main poison of the green death cap (Amanita phalloides) and among the most dangerous natural toxins causing hepatic failure. A possible therapeutic approach is the inhibition of the transporting systems mediating the uptake of amatoxins into human hepatocytes, which, however, have yet to be identified. In the current study we tested(More)
We have previously shown that the multi-drug resistance protein (MRP) mediates the ATP-dependent membrane transport of glutathione S-conjugates and additional amphiphilic organic anions. In the present study we demonstrate the expression of MRP in hepatocytes where it functions in hepatobiliary excretion. Analysis by reverse transcription-PCR of human and(More)
A significant increase in the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes was observed after mechanical or thermal trauma in the anesthesized rat. The amount of biliary N-acetyl-leukotriene E4, which represents a suitable indicator for blood plasma leukotrienes, was used as a measure of leukotriene generation. Cysteinyl leukotrienes were rapidly eliminated from(More)
The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) confers resistance of cells to a number of different cytostatic drugs and functions as an export pump for glutathione S-conjugates, glucuronides and other amphiphilic anions. The present study details for the first time MRP1-mediated ATP-dependent transport of various glutathione S-conjugates of the bifunctional(More)
The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-azaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine have found increasing use for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and solid tumors. Both nucleoside analogues must be transported into cells and phosphorylated before they can be incorporated into DNA and inactivate DNA methyltransferases. The members of the human(More)