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The dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and risk for lung cancer was established in 1950 by epidemiological studies. Laboratory assays with tobacco tar on mouse skin and smoke inhalation experiments with hamsters provided further evidence for this relationship. In cigarette smoke, among 4800 identified compounds, 69 are(More)
Human data indicate an increased risk for cancer of the oral cavity for snuff dippers. Popular snuff products from the United States, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark were analyzed for tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA). These compounds are formed during tobacco processing from nicotine, nornicotine, and anatabine and represent the only known carcinogens in(More)
The tobacco-specific A'-nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-l-(3-pyr-idyl)-l-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-l-(3-pyridyl)-l-bu-tanol (NNAL), as well as the /4reca-derived A'-nitrosoguvacoline (NG) were assayed for carcinogenicity in male F344 rats by lifetime adminis tration in the drinking water. Groups of 30 to 80 rats were treated with 0.5 ppm,(More)
Levels of hemoglobin adducts and DNA adducts were measured in F344 rats after 4 consecutive daily i.p. injections of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The dose range was from 3 to 10,000 micrograms/kg/day. [5(-3)H]NNK and [C3H3]NNK were used to measure pyridyloxobutylation and methylation, in both globin and DNA, respectively. In globin,(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic surveys have revealed accelerated increases in adenocarcinoma but less rapid increases in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung among cigarette smokers in recent decades. Changes in the makeup of cigarettes and corresponding changes in smoke composition along with nicotine-compensating smoking patterns, such as the frequency of puff(More)
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are a group of carcinogens that are present in tobacco and tobacco smoke. They are formed from nicotine and related tobacco alkaloids. Two of the nicotine-derived nitrosamines, NNK and NNN, are strong carcinogens in laboratory animals. They can induce tumors both locally and systemically. The induction of oral cavity tumors by(More)
Most studies of smoking and pancreatic cancer have used male subjects or combined men and women together in statistical analyses. There is little information on the relative risk of smoking and pancreatic cancer in women. Because of the high case-fatality rate, many of these studies were also based on information gathered from proxy respondents, in which(More)
BACKGROUND In 1996, an estimated 15,700 new cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 4,900 deaths from this disease were expected to occur in the United States. In a recent international study, human papillomavirus DNA was found in more than 90% of cervical tumor specimens examined, irrespective of the nationality of the patients from whom the samples were(More)
It was recently reported that toombak, a type of snuff used in the Sudan, contained unusually high levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. To estimate the internal dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) received by individuals who use this type of tobacco, urine from a group of users was analyzed for 2 metabolites of NNK,(More)
Cigarette smoke induces carcinoma of the larynx in Syrian golden hamsters and is active as a tumor promoter in hamsters pretreated with a low dose of a PAH, nitrosamine, or nitrosamide. These tumorigenic effects are only observed with total smoke, but not with the gas phase alone. This demonstrates that the tumorigenic agents reside primarily in the(More)