Dietrich Hoffmann

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Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are a group of carcinogens that are present in tobacco and tobacco smoke. They are formed from nicotine and related tobacco alkaloids. Two of the nicotine-derived nitrosamines, NNK and NNN, are strong carcinogens in laboratory animals. They can induce tumors both locally and systemically. The induction of oral cavity tumors by(More)
Antimicrobial peptides appear to be ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. During the past 15 years a multitude of these peptides have been isolated largely from insects. In spite of great differences in size, amino acid composition and structure, most of the(More)
The dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and risk for lung cancer was established in 1950 by epidemiological studies. Laboratory assays with tobacco tar on mouse skin and smoke inhalation experiments with hamsters provided further evidence for this relationship. In cigarette smoke, among 4800 identified compounds, 69 are(More)
Nicotine is recognized to be the major inducer of tobacco dependence. The smoking of cigarettes as an advantageous delivery system for nicotine, accelerates and aggravates cardiovascular disease, and is causally associated with increased risks for chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer of the lung and of the upper aerodigestive system, and cancer of the(More)
The tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), as well as the Areca-derived N-nitrosoguvacoline (NG) were assayed for carcinogenicity in male F344 rats by lifetime administration in the drinking water. Groups of 30 to 80 rats were treated with 0.5 ppm, 1.0(More)
An analytical procedure was developed for the analysis of 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, isoprene, benzene and toluene in the gas phase of cigarette smoke and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) utilizing cryogenic gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD). The MSD was operated in the selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The compounds of interest eluted(More)
Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloids give rise to tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) during tobacco processing and during smoking. Chemical-analytical studies led to the identification of seven TSNA in smokeless tobacco (< or = 25 micrograms/g) and in mainstream smoke of cigarettes (1.3 micrograms TSNA/cigarette). Indoor air polluted by tobacco(More)
BACKGROUND From 1973 to 1991, the incidence of kidney cancer in the United States increased by 35.4%. METHODS A multicenter, hospital-based case-control study was conducted from 1977 to 1993 through an interview of 788 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 779 control subjects. RESULTS Compared with those who never smoked, the odds ratio (OR) for renal(More)
Levels of hemoglobin adducts and DNA adducts were measured in F344 rats after 4 consecutive daily i.p. injections of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The dose range was from 3 to 10,000 micrograms/kg/day. [5(-3)H]NNK and [C3H3]NNK were used to measure pyridyloxobutylation and methylation, in both globin and DNA, respectively. In globin,(More)
BACKGROUND Moist snuff is the only tobacco product in the United States with increasing sales (an increase of 38.4% between 1981 and 1993) and with increased consumption, primarily by male adolescents aged 12-18 years old and young adults aged 19 years old or older. It is known from previous studies that levels of nicotine and the proportion of unprotonated(More)