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Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in forests have only recently attracted increasing attention. The vast majority of studies in forests have focused on above-ground responses to differences in tree species diversity, while systematic analyses of the effects of biodiversity on root systems are virtually non-existent. By investigating the fine(More)
Tropical regions are facing increasing atmospheric inputs of nutrients, which will have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of these systems. Here, we show that Neotropical montane rainforests respond rapidly to moderate additions of N (50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and P (10 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Monitoring of nutrient fluxes demonstrated that the(More)
Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better(More)
This paper reports on the experience gained using World Health Organization Guidelines for cancer pain relief over a 10-year period in an anaesthesiology-based pain service associated with a palliative care programme. The course of treatment of 2118 patients was assessed prospectively over a period of 140,478 treatment days. Non-opioid analgesics (WHO step(More)
Tropical forests store a large part of the terrestrial carbon and play a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle. In parts of Southeast Asia, conversion of natural forest to cacao agroforestry systems is an important driver of deforestation, resulting in C losses from biomass and soil to the atmosphere. This case study from Sulawesi, Indonesia, compares(More)
This open prospective study evaluated the combination of initial dose titration with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and long-term treatment with transdermal fentanyl in 50 cancer patients requiring opioids for severe pain. The delivery rate of the first transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) was calculated from the self-administered intravenous fentanyl(More)
According to recent climate change scenarios, temperate forests will be increasingly exposed to droughts in the 21st century which are thought to affect productivity. Although decreasing timber yield with reduced precipitation has frequently been reported from temperate forests, the dependence of forest net primary production (NPP) on precipitation is(More)
The mechanisms of belowground competition are not well understood. Addressing literature reports on competition-induced changes in tree fine root morphology, we conducted a growth experiment with tree saplings to investigate competition effects on important root morphological and functional traits in a root order-focused analysis. European beech and(More)
Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi,(More)
To determine the exchange of nitrogen and carbon between ectomycorrhiza and host plant, young beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees from natural regeneration in intact soil cores were labelled for one growing season in a greenhouse with 13CO2 and 15NO3 15NH4. The specific enrichments of 15N and 13C were higher in ectomycorrhizas (EMs) than in any other tissue. The(More)