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Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in forests have only recently attracted increasing attention. The vast majority of studies in forests have focused on above-ground responses to differences in tree species diversity, while systematic analyses of the effects of biodiversity on root systems are virtually non-existent. By investigating the fine(More)
Tropical regions are facing increasing atmospheric inputs of nutrients, which will have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of these systems. Here, we show that Neotropical montane rainforests respond rapidly to moderate additions of N (50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and P (10 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Monitoring of nutrient fluxes demonstrated that the(More)
Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better(More)
Tropical forests store a large part of the terrestrial carbon and play a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle. In parts of Southeast Asia, conversion of natural forest to cacao agroforestry systems is an important driver of deforestation, resulting in C losses from biomass and soil to the atmosphere. This case study from Sulawesi, Indonesia, compares(More)
Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi,(More)
According to recent climate change scenarios, temperate forests will be increasingly exposed to droughts in the 21st century which are thought to affect productivity. Although decreasing timber yield with reduced precipitation has frequently been reported from temperate forests, the dependence of forest net primary production (NPP) on precipitation is(More)
To determine the exchange of nitrogen and carbon between ectomycorrhiza and host plant, young beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees from natural regeneration in intact soil cores were labelled for one growing season in a greenhouse with 13CO2 and 15NO3 15NH4. The specific enrichments of 15N and 13C were higher in ectomycorrhizas (EMs) than in any other tissue. The(More)
Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm.(More)
The mechanisms of belowground competition are not well understood. Addressing literature reports on competition-induced changes in tree fine root morphology, we conducted a growth experiment with tree saplings to investigate competition effects on important root morphological and functional traits in a root order-focused analysis. European beech and(More)
For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests(More)