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To identify rare causal variants in late-onset Parkinson disease (PD), we investigated an Austrian family with 16 affected individuals by exome sequencing. We found a missense mutation, c.1858G>A (p.Asp620Asn), in the VPS35 gene in all seven affected family members who are alive. By screening additional PD cases, we saw the same variant cosegregating with(More)
Mouse units used to quantify the activity of botulinum A toxin preparations are not equivalent and issues concerning efficacy and safety remain with regard to their respective potencies and diffusion qualities in human tissue. We compared the effects of Botox (BOT) and Dysport (DYS) in different doses and dilutions in a human skin model. Eighteen (8 women,(More)
A challenge for the clinical management of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is the emergence of fluctuations in motor performance, which represents a significant source of disability during activities of daily living of the patients. There is a lack of objective measurement of treatment effects for in-clinic and at-home use that can provide an(More)
Existing therapeutic options for management of essential tremor are frequently limited by poor efficacy and adverse effects. Likely the most potent tremor suppressant used is ethanol, although its use is prohibitive due to a brief therapeutic window, and the obvious implications of excessive alcohol use. Longer-chain alcohols have been shown to suppress(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) have been shown to be a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE In this study, we evaluated the influence of four prevalent mutations (R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X) in a large cohort of 462 Austrian and German AD patients and in 402 control individuals. RESULTS We(More)
Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) on chromosome 9p13-p12 were recently found to be associated with hereditary inclusion body myopathy, Paget disease of the bone, and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). We identified a novel missense mutation in the VCP gene (R159H; 688G>A) segregating with this disease in an Austrian family of four affected(More)
The transcription factors PITX3 and Engrailed 1 (EN1), among others, have been shown to play a crucial role in the maturation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The degeneration of those neurons is the pathological hallmark in Parkinson's disease (PD). In a hypothesis-driven candidate gene approach, it has been recently shown that polymorphisms(More)
Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) are known to cause autosomal-dominant inclusion-body myopathy with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). We report a novel missense mutation (G157R) in the N-terminal region of the VCP gene in a German family. Family members presented with mild to moderate proximal muscle weakness,(More)
Several randomized placebo-controlled trials have consistently shown antidyskinetic effects of amantadine in levodopa treated patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, all of these were of short duration and there have been claims that the effect of amantadine on levodopa induced dyskinesias (LID's) wear off after about 9 months of(More)
We identified a marker in LINGO1 showing genome-wide significant association (P = 1.2 x 10(-9), odds ratio = 1.55) with essential tremor. LINGO1 has potent, negative regulatory influences on neuronal survival and is also important in regulating both central-nervous-system axon regeneration and oligodendrocyte maturation. Increased axon integrity observed in(More)