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In order to study the role of the amino acid in position B25 and its environment in shortened insulins, a series of analogues was prepared with the following modifications: 1, Stepwise shortening of the B-chain including replacements of TyrB26 and ThrB27 by glycine; 2, substitutions at the carboxamide nitrogen of des-(B26-B30)-insulin-B25-amide by apolar,(More)
We have followed the fate of cell surface insulin receptors in isolated rat hepatocytes by both a biochemical and a morphological approach. Hepatocytes were labeled with the photoreactive and biologically active 125I-labeled insulin analogue, [2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetylB2]des-PheB1-insulin, under conditions that allow for minimal internalization (2 hr at(More)
We tested the hypothesis that the molecular weight discrepancy between insulin receptors in brain and adipocytes is due to differences in glycosylation by treating photoaffinity-labeled insulin receptors from both tissues with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F (Endo F) and analyzing the products by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel(More)
A method was developed to determine the interspin distances of two or more nitroxide spin labels attached to specific sites in proteins. This method was applied to different conformations of spin-labeled insulins. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line broadening due to dipolar interaction is determined by fitting simulated EPR powder spectra to(More)
Molecular association between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and cellular proteins are thought to be involved in various immunological and nonimmunological functions of MHC antigens, including hormone signaling. The existence of physical interactions between insulin receptors and MHC class I antigens was investigated in liver plasma(More)
Insulin receptors in various brain regions (olfactory tubercle, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) were photoaffinity labeled using the photoreactive analogue of insulin B2(2-nitro,4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin (NAPA-DP-insulin). A protein with an apparent Mr of 400,000 was specifically labeled with 125I-NAPA-DP-insulin in all three brain regions. When(More)
Chimeric receptors were generated in which structurally defined subdomains of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) alpha-subunits were exchanged between their respective receptor backbone structures. Upon expression in human fibroblasts, nine IR/IGF-1R chimeras were transported to the cell surface, where they formed(More)
Starting with the epoch-making discovery of proinsulin, C-peptide has played an important interdisciplinary role, both as part of the single-chain precursor molecule and as an individual entity. In the pioneering years, fundamental systematic experiments unravelled new biochemical mechanisms and chemical structures. After the first detection of C-peptide in(More)
We photolabeled and characterized insulin receptors in isolated adipocytes from normal human subjects and then studied the cellular fate of the labeled insulin-receptor complexes at physiologic temperatures. The biologically active photosensitive insulin derivative, B2(2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)des-PheB1-insulin (NAPA-DP-insulin) was used to photoaffinity(More)