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—Titin is a giant vertebrate striated muscle protein with critical importance for myofibril elasticity and structural integrity. We show here that the complete sequence of the human titin gene contains 363 exons, which together code for 38 138 residues (4200 kDa). In its central I-band region, 47 novel PEVK exons were found, which contribute to titin's(More)
Titin (also known as connectin) is a giant protein with a wide range of cellular functions, including providing muscle cells with elasticity. Its physiological extension is largely derived from the PEVK segment, rich in proline (P), glutamate (E), valine (V), and lysine (K) residues. We studied recombinant PEVK molecules containing the two conserved(More)
The giant muscle protein titin contains a unique sequence, the PEVK domain, the elastic properties of which contribute to the mechanical behavior of relaxed cardiomyocytes. Here, human N2-B-cardiac PEVK was expressed in Escherichia coli and tested-along with recombinant cardiac titin constructs containing immunoglobulin-like or fibronectin-like domains-for(More)
The muscle-specific RING finger proteins MuRF1 and MuRF2 have been proposed to regulate protein degradation and gene expression in muscle tissues. We have tested the in vivo roles of MuRF1 and MuRF2 for muscle metabolism by using knockout (KO) mouse models. Single MuRF1 and MuRF2 KO mice are healthy and have normal muscles. Double knockout (dKO) mice(More)
The cellular function of the giant protein titin in striated muscle is a major focus of scientific attention. Particularly, its role in passive mechanics has been extensively investigated. In strong contrast, the structural details of this filament are very poorly understood. To date, only a handful of atomic models from single domain components have become(More)
Titin forms an intrasarcomeric filament system in vertebrate striated muscle, which has elastic and signaling properties and is thereby central to mechanotransduction. Near its C-terminus and directly preceding a kinase domain, titin contains a conserved pattern of Ig and FnIII modules (Ig(A168)-Ig(A169)-FnIII(A170), hereby A168-A170) that recruits the E3(More)
Titin is a giant elastic protein that is responsible for the majority of passive force generated by the myocardium. Titin's force is derived from its extensible I-band region, which, in the cardiac isoform, comprises three main extensible elements: tandem Ig segments, the PEVK domain, and the N2B unique sequence (N2B-Us). Using atomic force microscopy, we(More)
We studied the effects of Ca2+ on titin (connectin)-based passive tension in skinned myocardium expressing either predominantly N2B titin (rat right ventricle, RRV) or predominantly N2BA titin (bovine left atrium, BLA). Actomyosin-based tension was abolished to undetectably low levels by selectively removing the thin filaments with a Ca2+-insensitive(More)
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